Vol 94, No 6 (2023)
Research paper
Published online: 2022-07-21

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Ovarian teratoma-associated anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: a clinical analysis of 5 cases

Li-dan He1, Xia Zhang1, Jianbo Wu1
Pubmed: 36597802
Ginekol Pol 2023;94(6):451-455.

Abstract

Objectives: To analyse the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis associated with ovarian mature teratomas. Material and methods: Retrospectively analysed the clinical-laboratory data of five patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis combined with ovarian teratoma at a single centre between March 2016 and June 2019. Results: The mean age of the patients was 22.40 ± 2.89 years (range, 19–26 years). Five patients had premonitory fever symptoms, clinical manifestations of mental disorder or convulsions for starting, with varying degrees of involuntary movement. Brain MRI and electroencephalography lacked specificity, and cerebrospinal fluid resistance NMDAR antibody detection was the key to diagnosis. All patients experienced good outcomes in response to immunotherapy combined with ovarian tumour resection, with a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 16–55 months). The MRS value of five patients decreased significantly half a year after surgery, and no encephalitis or ovarian tumour relapses were reported. Conclusions: Anti-NMDA encephalitis caused by ovarian teratoma is mostly a non-specific clinical manifestation of neurological and mental abnormalities, which can be easily misdiagnosed and delayed, and doctors should fully recognise the disease, early diagnosis, and timely surgical intervention to improve the prognosis of patients.

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