Vol 94, No 3 (2023)
Research paper
Published online: 2022-07-26

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Foetal macrosomia — incidence, determinants and neonatal outcomes: 10-years retrospective review, 2010–2019

Marta Buraczewska1, Mateusz Bonin, Jaroslaw Meyer-Szary, Amelia Wawer, Patrycja Wieczorek, Olga Gapska, Karolina Filipczyk, Paulina Samusik, Ewa Michalik, Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko
Ginekol Pol 2023;94(3):233-241.

Abstract

Objectives: Prevalence of macrosomia differs worldwide according to studied population and has been variable over last few decades. The objective of the study was to determine the trends in incidence and clinical characteristics of infants with macrosomia born in two diverse Polish neonatal centres from 2010–2019. Material and methods: Trends in the incidence of macrosomia, maternal age, delivery mode and neonatal complications were analysed over a 10 year period based on birth medical records. Results: The total number of 43 165 term neonates were analysed with macrosomia incidence of 16.63% (n = 7179). The prevalence of macrosomia was stable from 2010–2019 irrespectively of referentiality and geographical area. Mean maternal age increased over the decade with higher age of mothers of macrosomic neonates. Recognizability of gestation diabetes among pregnant women increased from 9.61% in 2010 to 15.27% in 2019 and it was comparable in mothers of macrosomic infants. The percentage of caesarean sections was higher in macrosomic neonates and gradually increased over last decade. The highest percentage of birth injuries was observed in the first grade of macrosomia (4000–4499 g). The number of neonatal complications including lower Apgar score, respiratory and cardiology symptoms correlated with severity of macrosomia, with highest morbidity in children above 5000 g. Conclusions: The prevalence of macrosomia in the studied cohort remained invariable over the last decade. Macrosomia is associated with an increased rate of caesarean sections, higher maternal age and increased neonatal morbidity. A higher macrosomia grade is related to a worse neonatal outcome. Further studies on other risk factors of macrosomia are needed.

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