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Research paper
Published online: 2021-04-23
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Compliance with gestational weight gain recommendations in a cross-sectional study of term pregnancies — how far reality falls from the standard?

Anna Kajdy1, Justyna Sztajerowska2, Katarzyna Muzyka-Placzynska1, Jan Modzelewski1, Dorota Sys1, Malgorzata Starzec-Proserpio3, Barbara Baranowska3, Dagmara Filipecka-Tyczka1, Michal Rabijewski1
DOI: 10.5603/GP.a2021.0076
·
Pubmed: 33914305
Affiliations
  1. Department of Reproductive Health, Center of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland
  2. St. Sophia’s Specialist Hospital, Warsaw, Poland
  3. Department of Midwifery, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL PAPERS Obstetrics
Published online: 2021-04-23

Abstract

Objectives: During pregnancy, two aspects are critical in the context of adverse perinatal outcomes (APO): preconception obesity and gestational weight gain. This study aimed to assess compliance with the 2009 IOM guidelines, compare GWG with and without correcting for gestation duration, and observe the relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG and neonatal birth weight.

Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted from 2015-2018 at the St. Sophia's Specialist Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. Self-reported pre-pregnancy and predelivery weight were collected.

Results: The presented data set amounts to 7820 records. Analysis of weight gain compliance with IOM recommendations showed that only 41–44% (depending on the calculation method) of women had weight gain in accordance with IOM guidelines (22–23% — below; 33–37% — above). Overweight and obese women with diabetes are more likely to comply with IOM than women without diabetes. In contrast, women with normal-weight and underweight with diabetes are less likely to achieve IOM weight gain in pregnancy than women without diabetes. Women who have GWG below recommendations significantly more often gave birth to SGA neonates, and women who exceeded GWG standards significantly more often gave birth to LGA neonates.

Conclusions: Less than half of women had GWG within the recommended norms. Statistically significant differences were found in methods of calculation of GWG, but it was not found clinically significant. Correction for pregnancy duration when calculating GWG reclassifies two percent of patients. We underestimate the risk of crossing the line between overweight and obesity during pregnancy.

Abstract

Objectives: During pregnancy, two aspects are critical in the context of adverse perinatal outcomes (APO): preconception obesity and gestational weight gain. This study aimed to assess compliance with the 2009 IOM guidelines, compare GWG with and without correcting for gestation duration, and observe the relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG and neonatal birth weight.

Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted from 2015-2018 at the St. Sophia's Specialist Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. Self-reported pre-pregnancy and predelivery weight were collected.

Results: The presented data set amounts to 7820 records. Analysis of weight gain compliance with IOM recommendations showed that only 41–44% (depending on the calculation method) of women had weight gain in accordance with IOM guidelines (22–23% — below; 33–37% — above). Overweight and obese women with diabetes are more likely to comply with IOM than women without diabetes. In contrast, women with normal-weight and underweight with diabetes are less likely to achieve IOM weight gain in pregnancy than women without diabetes. Women who have GWG below recommendations significantly more often gave birth to SGA neonates, and women who exceeded GWG standards significantly more often gave birth to LGA neonates.

Conclusions: Less than half of women had GWG within the recommended norms. Statistically significant differences were found in methods of calculation of GWG, but it was not found clinically significant. Correction for pregnancy duration when calculating GWG reclassifies two percent of patients. We underestimate the risk of crossing the line between overweight and obesity during pregnancy.

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Keywords

pregnancy; gestational weight gain; diabetes; gestational; body mass index; cross-sectional studies; Poland

About this article
Title

Compliance with gestational weight gain recommendations in a cross-sectional study of term pregnancies — how far reality falls from the standard?

Journal

Ginekologia Polska

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Research paper

Published online

2021-04-23

DOI

10.5603/GP.a2021.0076

Pubmed

33914305

Keywords

pregnancy
gestational weight gain
diabetes
gestational
body mass index
cross-sectional studies
Poland

Authors

Anna Kajdy
Justyna Sztajerowska
Katarzyna Muzyka-Placzynska
Jan Modzelewski
Dorota Sys
Malgorzata Starzec-Proserpio
Barbara Baranowska
Dagmara Filipecka-Tyczka
Michal Rabijewski

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