Vol 92, No 11 (2021)
Research paper
Published online: 2021-04-20

open access

Page views 6836
Article views/downloads 640
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

The possible role of corticosterone in regulating sodium and potassium concentrations in human milk

Maciej Zietek1, Diana Sochaczewska2, Malgorzata Swiatkowska-Freund3, Zbigniew Celewicz1, Malgorzata Szczuko4
Pubmed: 33914331
Ginekol Pol 2021;92(11):812-817.

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of the study was to find the presence of corticosterone as a regular human milk constituent. We have evaluated the correlation of concentrations between the analyzed hormone and sodium and potassium in breast milk and serum.
Material and methods: Hand expressing breast milk samples and median cubital vein blood samples had been taken from 69 healthy, lactating women in early puerperium period (between the 3rd and 10th day) twice, before and after breastfeeding. Corticosterone concentrations in human plasma and breast milk were determined by radioimmunoassayed method. Direct assays were performed before and after breastfeeding, twice. The serum and milk sodium and potassium concentrations were estimated by Flame Emission analyzer CIBA-Corning 480, equipped with an automatic diluter.
Results: Corticosterone was found in all milk samples, which is an original observation, and its concentration in milk was a few times lower than in serum. Its concentration values in human serum when were not higher than 3 nmol/L (n = 108) positively correlated with its concentrations in milk, and those exceeding 3 nmol/L (n = 30) have demonstrated a negative correlation. An original finding has shown a positive correlation between concentrations of corticosterone in human serum and of potassium in human milk (r = 0.018, p < 0.03). An attempt was also made to determine the presence of aldosterone in breast milk, but the radioimmunoassay did not reveal its presence.
Conclusions: The results confirm a relation between potassium concentration in milk and serum corticosterone concentration delivered to mammal gland with blood.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file

References

  1. Neville MC, Allen JC, Archer PC, et al. Studies in human lactation: milk volume and nutrient composition during weaning and lactogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 54(1): 81–92.
  2. Li R, Fein SB, Chen J, et al. Why mothers stop breastfeeding: mothers' self-reported reasons for stopping during the first year. Pediatrics. 2008; 122 Suppl 2: S69–S76.
  3. Murase M, Wagner EA, J Chantry C, et al. The Relation between Breast Milk Sodium to Potassium Ratio and Maternal Report of a Milk Supply Concern. J Pediatr. 2017; 181: 294–297.e3.
  4. Emmett M, Mehta A. Gastrointestinal potassium binding-more than just lowering serum [K(+)]: patiromer, potassium balance, and the renin angiotensin aldosterone axis. Kidney Int. 2016; 90(3): 484–486.
  5. Armanini D, Bordin L, Donà G, et al. Relationship between sodium, pentraxin-3 and aldosterone in inflammation and cardiovascular risk. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2018; 20(5): 932–934.
  6. Katoh D, Hongo K, Ito K, et al. Corticosteroids increase intracellular free sodium ion concentration via glucocorticoid receptor pathway in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Int J Cardiol Heart Vessel. 2014; 3: 49–56.
  7. Eyal O, Limor R, Oren A, et al. Establishing Normal Ranges of Basal and ACTH-Stimulated Serum Free Cortisol in Children. Horm Res Paediatr. 2016; 86(2): 94–99.
  8. Rabinowitz L. Aldosterone and potassium homeostasis. Kidney Int. 1996; 49(6): 1738–1742.
  9. Keenan BS, Buzek SW, Garza C. Cortisol and its possible role in regulation of sodium and potassium in human milk. Am J Physiol. 1983; 244(3): E253–E261.
  10. Zahwa H, Yorty JL, Bonneau RH. Elevated maternal corticosterone during lactation hinders the neonatal adaptive immune response to herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Brain Behav Immun. 2008; 22(3): 339–353.
  11. Alexandrová M, Macho L. Glucocorticoids in human, cow and rat milk. Endocrinol Exp. 1983; 17(3-4): 183–189.
  12. Rosner W, Beers PC, Awan T, et al. Identification of corticosteroid-binding globulin in human milk: measurement with a filter disk assay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1976; 42(6): 1064–1073.
  13. Misao R, Hori M, Ichigo S, et al. Corticosteroid-binding globulin mRNA levels in human uterine endometrium. Steroids. 1994; 59(10): 603–607.
  14. Yeh KY. Corticosterone concentrations in the serum and milk of lactating rats: parallel changes after induced stress. Endocrinology. 1984; 115(4): 1364–1370.
  15. Hirasawa G, Takeyama J, Sasano H, et al. 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II and mineralocorticoid receptor in human placenta. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 85(3): 1306–1309.
  16. Yang K. Placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: barrier to maternal glucocorticoids. Rev Reprod. 1997; 2(3): 129–132.
  17. Pereira AS, Giusti-Paiva A, Vilela FC. Central corticosterone disrupts behavioral and neuroendocrine responses during lactation. Neurosci Lett. 2015; 606: 88–93.
  18. Chang LL, Wun WSA, Wang PS. An inhibitor of 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (PF915275) alleviates nonylphenol-induced hyperadrenalism and adiposity in rat and human cells. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2018; 19(1): 45.
  19. Lai CT, Gardner H, Geddes D. Comparison of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry with an Ion Selective Electrode to Determine Sodium and Potassium Levels in Human Milk. Nutrients. 2018; 10(9).
  20. Yurdakök M, Oran O, Tekinalp G. Sodium and potassium levels in colostrum. Turk J Pediatr. 1991; 33(4): 231–234.
  21. Keenan BS, Buzek SW, Garza C, et al. Diurnal and longitudinal variations in human milk sodium and potassium: implication for nutrition and physiology. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982; 35(3): 527–534.
  22. Miciński J, Miciński J, Pogorzelska J, et al. Basic and mineral composition of colostrum from cows in different ages and calving period. Journal of Elementology. 2016(1/2017).
  23. Mastroeni SS, Okada IA, Rondó PHC, et al. Concentrations of Fe, K, Na, Ca, P, Zn and Mg in maternal colostrum and mature milk. J Trop Pediatr. 2006; 52(4): 272–275.