Online first
Research paper
Published online: 2021-05-21

open access

Page views 1307
Article views/downloads 719
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Clinical significance of S100B protein in pregnant woman with early- onset severe preeclampsia

Jinxia Wu1, Xiaoqi Sheng2, Shaoming Zhou2, Chaoying Fang2, Yulin Song1, Hua Wang3, Zhengjun Jia3, Xiaozhou Jia1, Yiping You1


Objectives: Preeclampsia is one of the most feared complications of pregnancy, which can progress rapidly to serious complications such as death of both mother and fetus. To present, the leading cause of preeclampsia is still debated. The purpose of this article was to explore the clinical significance of S100B protein, a kind of Ca2+ -sensor protein, in the early-onset severe preeclampsia. Material and methods: Nine pregnant women with early-onset severe preeclampsia (the study group) and 13 healthy pregnant women (the control group) were included in this study. The level of S100B in the amniotic fluid, maternal blood, and umbilical cord blood were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) methods. Diagnostic values of S100B for early-onset severe preeclampsia were assessed by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The levels of S100B in maternal blood and amniotic fluid in the study group were higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that S100B detected by SPRi method (SPRi-S100B) showed a cut-off level of 181 ng/mL with sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 84.6%, and a Youden index of 0.846 in the maternal blood, which had better clinical significance and diagnostic value (at than that detected by ELISA (ELISA-S100B).   Conclusions: The levels of S100B detected by SPRi in maternal blood can indicate early-onset severe preeclampsia and perinatal brain injury.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Nirupama R, Divyashree S, Janhavi P, et al. Preeclampsia: Pathophysiology and management. J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod. 2021; 50(2): 101975.
  2. Rana S, Lemoine E, Granger JP, et al. Preeclampsia: Pathophysiology, Challenges, and Perspectives. Circ Res. 2019; 124(7): 1094–1112.
  3. Méhats C, Miralles F, Vaiman D. [New perspectives on preeclampsia]. Med Sci (Paris). 2017; 33(12): 1079–1088.
  4. Hagberg B, Hagberg G, Beckung E, et al. Changing panorama of cerebral palsy in Sweden. VIII. Prevalence and origin in the birth year period 1991-94. Acta Paediatr. 2001; 90(3): 271–277.
  5. Pierrat V, Haouari N, Liska A, et al. Groupe d'Etudes en Epidémiologie Périnatale. Prevalence, causes, and outcome at 2 years of age of newborn encephalopathy: population based study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005; 90(3): F257–F261.
  6. Bergman L, Akhter T, Wikström AK, et al. Plasma levels of S100B in preeclampsia and association with possible central nervous system effects. Am J Hypertens. 2014; 27(8): 1105–1111.
  7. Donato R. S100: a multigenic family of calcium-modulated proteins of the EF-hand type with intracellular and extracellular functional roles. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2001; 33(7): 637–668.
  8. Prez KD, Fan L. Structural Basis for S100B Interaction with its Target Proteins. J Mol Genet Med. 2018; 12(3).
  9. Anastasi E, Gennarini G, Del Mo, et al. Performance assessment of a fully automated electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay systemfor serum S100B protein. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2018; 32(4): 1039–1043.
  10. Thelin EP, Nelson DW, Bellander BMA. review of the clinical utility of serum S100B protein levels in the assessment of traumatic braininjury. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2017; 159(2): 209–225.
  11. Santos G, Barateiro A, Gomes CM, et al. Impaired oligodendrogenesis and myelination by elevated S100B levels during neurodevelopment. Neuropharmacology. 2018; 129: 69–83.
  12. Sen J, Belli A. S100B in neuropathologic states: the CRP of the brain? J Neurosci Res. 2007; 85(7): 1373–1380.
  13. Gazzolo D, Pluchinotta F, Lapergola G, et al. The Ca-Binding S100B Protein: An Important Diagnostic and Prognostic Neurobiomarker in Pediatric Laboratory Medicine. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1929: 701–728.
  14. Cai Rm, Weng Zp, Wang Yy, et al. [Relationship of S100B protein expression and the pathogenesis of early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2012; 47(7): 510–513.
  15. Astrand R, Undén J. Clinical Use of the Calcium-Binding S100B Protein, a Biomarker for Head Injury. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1929: 679–690.
  16. Mir IN, Chalak LF. Serum biomarkers to evaluate the integrity of the neurovascular unit. Early Hum Dev. 2014; 90(10): 707–711.
  17. Leite MC, Galland F, Brolese G, et al. A simple, sensitive and widely applicable ELISA for S100B: Methodological features of the measurement of this glial protein. J Neurosci Methods. 2008; 169(1): 93–99.
  18. Vaisocherová H, Faca VM, Taylor AD, et al. Comparative study of SPR and ELISA methods based on analysis of CD166/ALCAM levels in cancer and control human sera. Biosens Bioelectron. 2009; 24(7): 2143–2148.
  19. Campbell K, Huet AC, Charlier C, et al. Comparison of ELISA and SPR biosensor technology for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009; 877(32): 4079–4089.
  20. Michetti F, Corvino V, Geloso MC, et al. The S100B protein in biological fluids: more than a lifelong biomarker of brain distress. J Neurochem. 2012; 120(5): 644–659.
  21. Murabayashi M, Minato M, Okuhata Y, et al. Kinetics of serum S100B in newborns with intracranial lesions. Pediatr Int. 2008; 50(1): 17–22.
  22. Lv H, Wang Q, Wu S, et al. Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy-related biomarkers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chim Acta. 2015; 450: 282–297.
  23. Gazzolo D, Abella R, Marinoni E, et al. New markers of neonatal neurology. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009; 22 Suppl 3: 57–61.
  24. Michetti F, Gazzolo D. S100B protein in biological fluids: a tool for perinatal medicine. Clin Chem. 2002; 48(12): 2097–2104.
  25. Zaigham M, Lundberg F, Olofsson P. Protein S100B in umbilical cord blood as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in asphyxiated newborns. Early Hum Dev. 2017; 112: 48–53.
  26. Wikström AK, Ekegren L, Karlsson M, et al. Plasma levels of S100B during pregnancy in women developing pre-eclampsia. Pregnancy Hypertens. 2012; 2(4): 398–402.
  27. Tskitishvili E, Komoto Y, Temma-Asano K, et al. S100B protein expression in the amnion and amniotic fluid in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. Mol Hum Reprod. 2006; 12(12): 755–761.
  28. Vettorazzi J, Torres FV, de Ávila TT, et al. Serum S100B in pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia: A case-control study. Pregnancy Hypertens. 2012; 2(2): 101–105.
  29. Bergman L, Åkerud H, Wikström AK, et al. Cerebral Biomarkers in Women With Preeclampsia Are Still Elevated 1 Year Postpartum. Am J Hypertens. 2016; 29(12): 1374–1379.
  30. Artunc-Ulkumen B, Guvenc Y, Goker A, et al. Maternal Serum S100-B, PAPP-A and IL-6 levels in severe preeclampsia. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015; 292(1): 97–102.
  31. Michetti F, Gazzolo D. S100B protein in biological fluids: a tool for perinatal medicine. Clin Chem. 2002; 48(12): 2097–2104.
  32. Steiner J, Bogerts B, Schroeter ML, et al. S100B protein in neurodegenerative disorders. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011; 49(3): 409–424.
  33. Erickson JA, Grenache DG. Performance Evaluation of a Serum S-100B ELISA for Use with Cerebrospinal Fluid. J Appl Lab Med. 2018; 2(5): 811–813.
  34. Homola J. Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species. Chem Rev. 2008; 108(2): 462–493.
  35. Howe CL, Webb KF, Abayzeed SA, et al. Surface plasmon resonance imaging of excitable cells. J Phys D Appl Phys. 2019; 52(10): 104001.