Vol 8, No 2 (2022)
Research paper
Published online: 2022-04-13
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Autoimmune bullous skin disorders — retrospective cohort study

Adrianna Pyrek1, Laura Eliszewska1, Natalia Rutecka1, Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek1, Waldemar Placek1
Forum Dermatologicum 2022;8(2):93-97.

Abstract

Introduction: Autoimmune bullous disorders is a group of chronic diseases. Bullous pemphigoid is the most common autoimmune bullous disease of all, affecting mainly elderly people in the 8th decade of life, without gender predilection. Pemphigus manifests usually between 45 and 65 years of age, with a female predilection reported in most epidemiological studies. Aim of the study was assessing the prevalence of bullous diseases with respect to their types in different age groups, coexistence with neoplasms and other diseases.
Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of medical histories of patients hospitalized in the Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Clinical Immunology at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn with a diagnosis of bullous diseases between 2015 and 2021.
Results: Seventy-two patients diagnosed with autoimmune bullous diseases were treated in the Department of Dermatology from 2015 to 2021. The mean age of patients was 76 years for pemphigoid diseases and 58 years for pemphigus. A causative agent such as drugs or consumption of bulbous plants was suspected in 10 patients (13.9%). Coexisting neoplasms were present in 12 patients (16.7%). The subjects also had comorbidities, the most common of which was hypertension (23 patients).
Conclusions: The study confirmed most of the epidemiological data: bullous pemphigoid mainly affects the elderly, in the 8th decade of life, while pemphigus usually manifests itself before the age of 65. Symptoms can be provoked by external factors such as drugs, pathogens, UV light, diet, and stress. They can also coexist with other autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases.

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