open access

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)
Original article
Submitted: 2020-07-12
Accepted: 2020-11-14
Published online: 2020-12-05
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Morphometric analysis of the apical foramina in extracted human teeth

M. Z. Manva1, S. Sheereen2, M. K. Hans3, R. Alroomy1, S. K. Mallineni45
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2020.0143
·
Pubmed: 33330969
·
Folia Morphol 2022;81(1):212-219.
Affiliations
  1. College of Dentistry, Restorative Dental Sciences, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. College of Dentistry, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  3. Geetanjali Dental and Research Institute, Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
  4. Department of Preventive Dental Science, College of Dentistry, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah, Saudi Arabia
  5. Centre for Transdisciplinary Research (CFTR), Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

open access

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2020-07-12
Accepted: 2020-11-14
Published online: 2020-12-05

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to analyse the morphology of the apical foramen in permanent maxillary and mandibular human teeth.
Materials and methods: The anatomic parameters include shapes (rounded, oval, uneven, flat and semilunar) and location (centre, buccal/labial, lingual/palatal, mesial, and distal) of the apical foramina was evaluated. The shapes and locations of apical foramen were analysed based on tooth type (central incisor, lateral incisor, canine, premolars, and molars) arch type (maxillary and mandibular), and position (anterior and posterior). All the teeth were investigated for the apical foramina shape and location using a stereomicroscope at a magnification of 10×. Descriptive statistics performed using SPSS (Version 21.0, IBM, NY, USA) at p value less than 0.05.
Results: The common shape of apical foramina was round (65%) and location was centre (32%). The frequency of deviation of apical was 68% in overall teeth. Apical foramina in maxillary anterior teeth showed more deviation while posterior teeth in mandibular teeth. The most common shape of apical foramina was round (65.1%) followed by (31%) and flat and semilunar shapes are very rare in studied subjects.
Conclusions: The most frequent direction of deviation is the distal surface, followed by the mesial surface. The variation is more common in mandibular posterior teeth, while maxillary posteriors showed the least difference. The commonest shape of the apical foramen is of a round shape, followed by the oval. The oval shape of the apical foramen is most frequent with central incisors.

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to analyse the morphology of the apical foramen in permanent maxillary and mandibular human teeth.
Materials and methods: The anatomic parameters include shapes (rounded, oval, uneven, flat and semilunar) and location (centre, buccal/labial, lingual/palatal, mesial, and distal) of the apical foramina was evaluated. The shapes and locations of apical foramen were analysed based on tooth type (central incisor, lateral incisor, canine, premolars, and molars) arch type (maxillary and mandibular), and position (anterior and posterior). All the teeth were investigated for the apical foramina shape and location using a stereomicroscope at a magnification of 10×. Descriptive statistics performed using SPSS (Version 21.0, IBM, NY, USA) at p value less than 0.05.
Results: The common shape of apical foramina was round (65%) and location was centre (32%). The frequency of deviation of apical was 68% in overall teeth. Apical foramina in maxillary anterior teeth showed more deviation while posterior teeth in mandibular teeth. The most common shape of apical foramina was round (65.1%) followed by (31%) and flat and semilunar shapes are very rare in studied subjects.
Conclusions: The most frequent direction of deviation is the distal surface, followed by the mesial surface. The variation is more common in mandibular posterior teeth, while maxillary posteriors showed the least difference. The commonest shape of the apical foramen is of a round shape, followed by the oval. The oval shape of the apical foramen is most frequent with central incisors.

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Keywords

apical foramina, morphology, location, shape, root, stereomicroscope

About this article
Title

Morphometric analysis of the apical foramina in extracted human teeth

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 81, No 1 (2022)

Article type

Original article

Pages

212-219

Published online

2020-12-05

Page views

1952

Article views/downloads

883

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2020.0143

Pubmed

33330969

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2022;81(1):212-219.

Keywords

apical foramina
morphology
location
shape
root
stereomicroscope

Authors

M. Z. Manva
S. Sheereen
M. K. Hans
R. Alroomy
S. K. Mallineni

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