open access

Vol 83, No 1 (2024): Folia Morphologica
Original article
Submitted: 2023-02-17
Accepted: 2023-04-12
Published online: 2023-05-08
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Autophagy exerts a protective role in cervical spinal cord injury by microglia inhibition through the nuclear factor kappa-B pathway

Baicheng Yang1, Xinming Yang2
·
Pubmed: 37183514
·
Folia Morphol 2024;83(1):113-124.
Affiliations
  1. Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei, China
  2. Department of Orthopaedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei, China

open access

Vol 83, No 1 (2024): Folia Morphologica
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2023-02-17
Accepted: 2023-04-12
Published online: 2023-05-08

Abstract

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious trauma to the central nervous system. M1/M2 microglial polarization as well as the following neuroinflammatory response are crucial factors in SCI. Autophagy plays an important role in SCI, but its neuroprotective or neurodegenerative role remains controversial. Materials and methods: Here, we majorly examined the properties of autophagy in SCI and uncovered the regulatory relationship between autophagy and microglial polarization in SCI. Results: In our study, the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score was declined in SCI. The cervical contusion SCI stimulated a sustaining neuropathic pain-linked phenotype characterized by thermal hyperalgesia as well as mechanical allodynia. It was revealed the structural damage to the spinal cord in SCI. Besides, the expression of microglia markers as well as inflammatory factor were promoted in SCI. Cervical contusion SCI induced autophagy inhibition and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation in mice. More importantly, enhanced autophagy induced by rapamycin suppressed the NF-κB pathway and alleviated cervical contusion SCI-induced neurological function damage in mice. Additionally, rapamycin promoted microglia M2 polarization and improved microglia-mediated inflammatory response. Conclusions: In conclusion, our study demonstrated that autophagy played a protective role in cervical SCI by promoting microglia polarization toward M2 through the NF-κB pathway. Our study may provide a novel sight for SCI treatment.

Abstract

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious trauma to the central nervous system. M1/M2 microglial polarization as well as the following neuroinflammatory response are crucial factors in SCI. Autophagy plays an important role in SCI, but its neuroprotective or neurodegenerative role remains controversial. Materials and methods: Here, we majorly examined the properties of autophagy in SCI and uncovered the regulatory relationship between autophagy and microglial polarization in SCI. Results: In our study, the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score was declined in SCI. The cervical contusion SCI stimulated a sustaining neuropathic pain-linked phenotype characterized by thermal hyperalgesia as well as mechanical allodynia. It was revealed the structural damage to the spinal cord in SCI. Besides, the expression of microglia markers as well as inflammatory factor were promoted in SCI. Cervical contusion SCI induced autophagy inhibition and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation in mice. More importantly, enhanced autophagy induced by rapamycin suppressed the NF-κB pathway and alleviated cervical contusion SCI-induced neurological function damage in mice. Additionally, rapamycin promoted microglia M2 polarization and improved microglia-mediated inflammatory response. Conclusions: In conclusion, our study demonstrated that autophagy played a protective role in cervical SCI by promoting microglia polarization toward M2 through the NF-κB pathway. Our study may provide a novel sight for SCI treatment.

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Keywords

spinal cord injury, microglia activation, NF-κB, autophagy

About this article
Title

Autophagy exerts a protective role in cervical spinal cord injury by microglia inhibition through the nuclear factor kappa-B pathway

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 83, No 1 (2024): Folia Morphologica

Article type

Original article

Pages

113-124

Published online

2023-05-08

Page views

669

Article views/downloads

448

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2023.0036

Pubmed

37183514

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2024;83(1):113-124.

Keywords

spinal cord injury
microglia activation
NF-κB
autophagy

Authors

Baicheng Yang
Xinming Yang

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