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Vol 83, No 1 (2024): Folia Morphologica
Review article
Submitted: 2022-12-04
Accepted: 2023-01-14
Published online: 2023-01-26
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Anatomical review of internal jugular vein cannulation

Natalie Kosnik1, Taylor Kowalski1, Lorraine Lorenz1, Mercedes Valacer1, Sumathilatha Sakthi-Velavan1
·
Pubmed: 36794685
·
Folia Morphol 2024;83(1):1-19.
Affiliations
  1. Division of Biomedical Sciences, Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States

open access

Vol 83, No 1 (2024): Folia Morphologica
REVIEW ARTICLES
Submitted: 2022-12-04
Accepted: 2023-01-14
Published online: 2023-01-26

Abstract

The internal jugular veins (IJV) are the primary venous outflow channels of the head and neck. The IJV is of clinical interest since it is often used for central venous access. This literature aims at presenting an overview of the anatomical variations, morphometrics based on various imaging modalities, cadaveric and surgical findings, and the clinical anatomy of IJV cannulation. Additionally, the anatomical basis of complications, techniques to avoid complications, and cannulation in special instances are also included in the review.

The review was performed by a detailed literature search and review of relevant articles. A total of 141 articles were included and organized into anatomical variations, morphometrics, and clinical anatomy of IJV cannulation.

The IJV is next to important structures such as the arteries, nerve plexus, and pleura, which puts them at risk of injury during cannulation. Anatomical variations such as duplications, fenestrations, agenesis, tributaries, and valves, may lead to an increased failure rate and complications during the procedure, if unnoticed. The morphometrics of IJV, such as the cross-sectional area, diameter, and distance from the skin-to-cavo-atrial junction may assist in choosing the appropriate
cannulation techniques and hence reduce the incidence of complications. Age, gender, and side-related differences explained variations in the IJV-common carotid artery relationship, cross-sectional area, and diameter. Accurate knowledge of anatomical variations in special considerations such as paediatrics and obesity may help prevent complications and facilitate successful cannulation.

Abstract

The internal jugular veins (IJV) are the primary venous outflow channels of the head and neck. The IJV is of clinical interest since it is often used for central venous access. This literature aims at presenting an overview of the anatomical variations, morphometrics based on various imaging modalities, cadaveric and surgical findings, and the clinical anatomy of IJV cannulation. Additionally, the anatomical basis of complications, techniques to avoid complications, and cannulation in special instances are also included in the review.

The review was performed by a detailed literature search and review of relevant articles. A total of 141 articles were included and organized into anatomical variations, morphometrics, and clinical anatomy of IJV cannulation.

The IJV is next to important structures such as the arteries, nerve plexus, and pleura, which puts them at risk of injury during cannulation. Anatomical variations such as duplications, fenestrations, agenesis, tributaries, and valves, may lead to an increased failure rate and complications during the procedure, if unnoticed. The morphometrics of IJV, such as the cross-sectional area, diameter, and distance from the skin-to-cavo-atrial junction may assist in choosing the appropriate
cannulation techniques and hence reduce the incidence of complications. Age, gender, and side-related differences explained variations in the IJV-common carotid artery relationship, cross-sectional area, and diameter. Accurate knowledge of anatomical variations in special considerations such as paediatrics and obesity may help prevent complications and facilitate successful cannulation.

Get Citation

Keywords

internal jugular vein, anatomical variations, morphometrics, cannulation, imaging, landmarks

About this article
Title

Anatomical review of internal jugular vein cannulation

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 83, No 1 (2024): Folia Morphologica

Article type

Review article

Pages

1-19

Published online

2023-01-26

Page views

948

Article views/downloads

1396

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2023.0008

Pubmed

36794685

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2024;83(1):1-19.

Keywords

internal jugular vein
anatomical variations
morphometrics
cannulation
imaging
landmarks

Authors

Natalie Kosnik
Taylor Kowalski
Lorraine Lorenz
Mercedes Valacer
Sumathilatha Sakthi-Velavan

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