open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
Original article
Submitted: 2022-10-06
Accepted: 2022-12-01
Published online: 2022-12-23
Get Citation

Quantitative anatomy of the growing supraspinatus muscle in the human fetus

M. Biernacki1, M. Badura1, M. Grzonkowska1, M. Szpinda1, M. Dąbrowska1, M. Paruszewska-Achtel1, M. Wiśniewski1, M. Baumgart
·
Pubmed: 36573362
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):862-868.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Normal Anatomy, the Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland

open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2022-10-06
Accepted: 2022-12-01
Published online: 2022-12-23

Abstract

Background: The supraspinatus muscle, one of the four rotator cuff muscles,
initiates abduction of the arm, simultaneously stretching the articular capsule at the
glenohumeral joint, and also contributes to exorotation of the arm. In the present
study we aimed to evaluate the age-specific normative values for morphometric
parameters of the supraspinatus muscle in human fetuses at varying ages and to
elaborate their growth models.
Materials and methods: Using anatomical dissection, digital image analysis (NIS
Elements AR 3.0) and statistics (Student’s t-test, regression analysis), the length,
width, circumference and projection surface area of the supraspinatus muscle
were measured in 34 human fetuses of both sexes (16 males, 18 females) aged
18–30 weeks of gestation.
Results: Neither sex nor laterality differences were found in numerical data of the
supraspinatus muscle. In the supraspinatus muscle its length and projection surface
area increased logarithmically, while its width and circumference grew proportionately
to gestational age. The following growth models of the supraspinatus
muscle were established: y = –71.382 + 30.972 × ln(Age) ± 0.565 for length,
y = –2.988 + 0.386 × Age ± 0.168 for greatest width (perpendicular to superior
angle of scapula), y = –1.899 + 0.240 × Age ± 0.078 for width perpendicular
to the scapular notch, y = –19.7016 + 3.381 × Age ± 2.036 for circumference,
and y = –721.769 + 266.141 × ln(Age) ± 6.170 for projection surface area.
Conclusions: The supraspinatus muscle reveals neither sex nor laterality differences
in its size. The supraspinatus muscle grows logarithmically with reference to its
length and projection surface area, and proportionately with respect to its width
and circumference.

Abstract

Background: The supraspinatus muscle, one of the four rotator cuff muscles,
initiates abduction of the arm, simultaneously stretching the articular capsule at the
glenohumeral joint, and also contributes to exorotation of the arm. In the present
study we aimed to evaluate the age-specific normative values for morphometric
parameters of the supraspinatus muscle in human fetuses at varying ages and to
elaborate their growth models.
Materials and methods: Using anatomical dissection, digital image analysis (NIS
Elements AR 3.0) and statistics (Student’s t-test, regression analysis), the length,
width, circumference and projection surface area of the supraspinatus muscle
were measured in 34 human fetuses of both sexes (16 males, 18 females) aged
18–30 weeks of gestation.
Results: Neither sex nor laterality differences were found in numerical data of the
supraspinatus muscle. In the supraspinatus muscle its length and projection surface
area increased logarithmically, while its width and circumference grew proportionately
to gestational age. The following growth models of the supraspinatus
muscle were established: y = –71.382 + 30.972 × ln(Age) ± 0.565 for length,
y = –2.988 + 0.386 × Age ± 0.168 for greatest width (perpendicular to superior
angle of scapula), y = –1.899 + 0.240 × Age ± 0.078 for width perpendicular
to the scapular notch, y = –19.7016 + 3.381 × Age ± 2.036 for circumference,
and y = –721.769 + 266.141 × ln(Age) ± 6.170 for projection surface area.
Conclusions: The supraspinatus muscle reveals neither sex nor laterality differences
in its size. The supraspinatus muscle grows logarithmically with reference to its
length and projection surface area, and proportionately with respect to its width
and circumference.

Get Citation

Keywords

supraspinatus muscle, growth dynamics, fetal development

About this article
Title

Quantitative anatomy of the growing supraspinatus muscle in the human fetus

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)

Article type

Original article

Pages

862-868

Published online

2022-12-23

Page views

770

Article views/downloads

486

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0110

Pubmed

36573362

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):862-868.

Keywords

supraspinatus muscle
growth dynamics
fetal development

Authors

M. Biernacki
M. Badura
M. Grzonkowska
M. Szpinda
M. Dąbrowska
M. Paruszewska-Achtel
M. Wiśniewski
M. Baumgart

References (17)
  1. Abe S, Nakamura T, Rodriguez-Vazquez JF, et al. Early fetal development of the rotator interval region of the shoulder with special reference to topographical relationships among related tendons and ligaments. Surg Radiol Anat. 2011; 33(7): 609–615.
  2. Badura M, Grzonkowska M, Baumgart M, et al. Quantitative anatomy of the trapezius muscle in the human fetus. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2016; 25(4): 605–609.
  3. Badura M, Wiśniewski M, Szpinda M, et al. Developmental dynamics of the semimembranosus muscle in human foetuses. Med Biol Sci. 2011; 25: 13–16.
  4. Badura M, Wiśniewski M, Szpinda M, et al. The growth of the semitendinosus muscle in human foetuses. Med Biol Sci. 2011; 25: 17–21.
  5. Fealy S, Rodeo SA, Dicarlo EF, et al. The developmental anatomy of the neonatal glenohumeral joint. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2000; 9(3): 217–222.
  6. Gates JJ, Gilliland J, McGarry MH, et al. Influence of distinct anatomic subregions of the supraspinatus on humeral rotation. J Orthop Res. 2010; 28(1): 12–17.
  7. Grzonkowska M, Badura M, Lisiecki J, et al. Growth dynamics of the triceps brachii muscle in the human fetus. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2014; 23(2): 177–184.
  8. Grzonkowska M, Baumgart M, Badura M, et al. Quantitative anatomy of the growing quadratus lumborum in the human foetus. Surg Radiol Anat. 2018; 40(1): 91–98.
  9. Jeka S, Dura M, Waszczak-Jeka M. Ultrasonografia najczęstszych zespołów bólowych kończyny górnej w ambulatoryjnej praktyce reumatologicznej. Forum Reumatol. 2016; 2(3): 111–117.
  10. Karas V, Cole BJ, Wang VM, et al. Biomechanical factors in rotator cuff pathology. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2011; 19(3): 202–206.
  11. Neer CS. Anterior acromioplasty for the chronic impingement syndrome in the shoulder: a preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1972; 54(1): 41–50.
  12. Redondo-Alonso L, Chamorro-Moriana G, Jiménez-Rejano JJ, et al. Relationship between chronic pathologies of the supraspinatus tendon and the long head of the biceps tendon: systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014; 15: 377.
  13. Szpinda M, Paruszewska-Achtel M, Baumgart M, et al. Quantitative growth of the human deltoid muscle in human foetuses. Med Biol Sci. 2011; 25: 59–64.
  14. Szpinda M, Paruszewska-Achtel M, Dąbrowska M, et al. The normal growth of the biceps brachii muscle in human fetuses. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2013; 22(1): 17–26.
  15. Szpinda M, Wiśniewski M, Rolka Ł. The biceps femoris muscle in human foetuses: a morphometric, digital and statistical study. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2011; 20: 575–582.
  16. Ward WT, Fleisch ID, Ganz R. Anatomy of the iliocapsularis muscle. Relevance to surgery of the hip. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2000(374): 278–285.
  17. You T, Frostick S, Zhang WT, et al. Os acromiale: reviews and current perspectives. Orthop Surg. 2019; 11(5): 738–744.

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By VM Media Group sp. z o.o., Grupa Via Medica, Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.: +48 58 320 94 94, faks: +48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl