open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
Original article
Submitted: 2022-08-27
Accepted: 2022-09-27
Published online: 2022-10-14
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Morphology and variability of the facial nerve trunk depending on the branching pattern, gender, anthropometric type and side of the head in Moldovan population

A. Babuci1, I. Catereniuc1, Z. Zorina1, A. Bendelic1, T. Botnari1, E. Stepco2, S. Lehtman3, S. Strisca3, L. Nastas3, G. Motelica3, O. Procopenco3
·
Pubmed: 36254108
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):791-797.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy and Clinical Anatomy, Nicolae Testemitanu State University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
  2. Department of Paediatric Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Paedodontics “Ion Lupan”, Nicolae Testemitanu State University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova
  3. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Implantology “Arsenie Gutan”, Nicolae Testemitanu State University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova

open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2022-08-27
Accepted: 2022-09-27
Published online: 2022-10-14

Abstract

Background: Knowledge concerning variability of the facial nerve trunk (FNT)
direction after its exit through the stylomastoid foramen is of a great clinical
significance for maxillofacial surgeons, otorhinolaryngologists, oncologists, specialists
in plastic and aesthetic surgery. The aim of our study was to establish the
variation of the FNT direction and its peculiarities depending on the branching
pattern, gender, anthropometric type and side of the head.
Materials and methods: The direction of the FNT and its branching pattern
were studied on 75 dissected hemifaces of adult formalised cadavers (59 male/
/16 female), and the morphometry of the FNT length, width and bifurcation angle
was carried out.
Results: Seven branching patterns of the facial nerve were established: type I
— 18.7%, type II — 14.7%, type III — 20%, type IV — 14.6%, type V — 5.3%,
type VI — 18.7%, and type NI — 8% (bizarre types). The FNT had a descending
direction in 73.3% of cases; ascending FNT — 9.3% (including 5.3% of very short
diffuse branching trunks and 1.3% of arch-shaped FNT); horizontal FNT — 10.7%;
number variants — 6.7%. The male/female ratio of the descending FNT was
69.5%/87.4%; ascending — 10.2%/6.3%; horizontal — 11.9%/6.3%; number
variants — 8.4% (only in male). The right/left ratio of the descending FNT was
62.9%/82.5%; ascending — 11.4%/7.5%; horizontal — 11.4%/10%; number
variants — 14.3% (only on the right side). The ratio of the descending FNT in
mesocephalic type (MCT)/brachycephalic type (BCT)/dolichocephalic type (DCT)
was respectively 70.6%/100%/66.7%; ascending — 12.1%/0%/0%; horizontal
— 12.1/0%/11.1%. Numerical variants in MCT — 5.2%, in DCT — 22.2%. The
mean number of FNT in MCT/BCT/DCT was respectively 1.07/1.0/1.22.

Conclusions: Three main directions are characteristic of the FNT: the descending,
ascending and horizontal ones, which vary depending on the branching pattern,
gender, shape and side of the head.

Abstract

Background: Knowledge concerning variability of the facial nerve trunk (FNT)
direction after its exit through the stylomastoid foramen is of a great clinical
significance for maxillofacial surgeons, otorhinolaryngologists, oncologists, specialists
in plastic and aesthetic surgery. The aim of our study was to establish the
variation of the FNT direction and its peculiarities depending on the branching
pattern, gender, anthropometric type and side of the head.
Materials and methods: The direction of the FNT and its branching pattern
were studied on 75 dissected hemifaces of adult formalised cadavers (59 male/
/16 female), and the morphometry of the FNT length, width and bifurcation angle
was carried out.
Results: Seven branching patterns of the facial nerve were established: type I
— 18.7%, type II — 14.7%, type III — 20%, type IV — 14.6%, type V — 5.3%,
type VI — 18.7%, and type NI — 8% (bizarre types). The FNT had a descending
direction in 73.3% of cases; ascending FNT — 9.3% (including 5.3% of very short
diffuse branching trunks and 1.3% of arch-shaped FNT); horizontal FNT — 10.7%;
number variants — 6.7%. The male/female ratio of the descending FNT was
69.5%/87.4%; ascending — 10.2%/6.3%; horizontal — 11.9%/6.3%; number
variants — 8.4% (only in male). The right/left ratio of the descending FNT was
62.9%/82.5%; ascending — 11.4%/7.5%; horizontal — 11.4%/10%; number
variants — 14.3% (only on the right side). The ratio of the descending FNT in
mesocephalic type (MCT)/brachycephalic type (BCT)/dolichocephalic type (DCT)
was respectively 70.6%/100%/66.7%; ascending — 12.1%/0%/0%; horizontal
— 12.1/0%/11.1%. Numerical variants in MCT — 5.2%, in DCT — 22.2%. The
mean number of FNT in MCT/BCT/DCT was respectively 1.07/1.0/1.22.

Conclusions: Three main directions are characteristic of the FNT: the descending,
ascending and horizontal ones, which vary depending on the branching pattern,
gender, shape and side of the head.

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Keywords

facial nerve, branching types, variation, peculiarities, morphometry

About this article
Title

Morphology and variability of the facial nerve trunk depending on the branching pattern, gender, anthropometric type and side of the head in Moldovan population

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)

Article type

Original article

Pages

791-797

Published online

2022-10-14

Page views

930

Article views/downloads

516

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0088

Pubmed

36254108

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):791-797.

Keywords

facial nerve
branching types
variation
peculiarities
morphometry

Authors

A. Babuci
I. Catereniuc
Z. Zorina
A. Bendelic
T. Botnari
E. Stepco
S. Lehtman
S. Strisca
L. Nastas
G. Motelica
O. Procopenco

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