open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
Review article
Submitted: 2022-08-14
Accepted: 2022-09-26
Published online: 2022-09-30
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The cranio-orbital foramen: a meta-analysis with a review of the literature

P. Ostrowski1, M. Bonczar1, J. Iwanaga23, R. Canon1, M. Dziedzic1, B. Kołodziejczyk1, A. Juszczak1, J. Walocha1, M. Koziej1
·
Pubmed: 36178278
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):758-765.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
  2. Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, United States
  3. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Submitted: 2022-08-14
Accepted: 2022-09-26
Published online: 2022-09-30

Abstract

Background: The goal of the present study was to provide accurate data on
the prevalence and morphometrical aspects of the cranio-orbital foramen (COF),
which can surely be of use by surgeons performing procedures on the lateral
orbit. Furthermore, the embryology and the clinical significance of this osseous
structure were thoroughly discussed.
Materials and methods: Major online medical databases such as PubMed, Scopus,
Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to find all relevant
studies regarding COF.
Results: Eventually, a total of 25 studies that matched the required criteria and
contained complete and relevant data were included in this meta-analysis. The
pooled prevalence of COF was found to be 48.37% (95% confidence interval [CI]:
41.67–55.10%). The occurrence of the COF unilaterally was set to be 71.92%
(95% CI: 41.87–96.97%). The occurrence of the COF bilaterally was set at 26.08%
(95% CI: 3.03–58.13%).
Conclusions: In conclusion, we believe that this is the most accurate and up-to-
-date study regarding the anatomy of the COF. The COF is prevalent in 48.37%
of the cases, and it is most frequently unilateral (73.92%). Furthermore, the
prevalence of accessory COFs was found to be 16.72%. The presence of these
foramina may represent a source of haemorrhage that ophthalmic surgeons
should be aware of when performing procedures in the lateral part of the orbit.

Abstract

Background: The goal of the present study was to provide accurate data on
the prevalence and morphometrical aspects of the cranio-orbital foramen (COF),
which can surely be of use by surgeons performing procedures on the lateral
orbit. Furthermore, the embryology and the clinical significance of this osseous
structure were thoroughly discussed.
Materials and methods: Major online medical databases such as PubMed, Scopus,
Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to find all relevant
studies regarding COF.
Results: Eventually, a total of 25 studies that matched the required criteria and
contained complete and relevant data were included in this meta-analysis. The
pooled prevalence of COF was found to be 48.37% (95% confidence interval [CI]:
41.67–55.10%). The occurrence of the COF unilaterally was set to be 71.92%
(95% CI: 41.87–96.97%). The occurrence of the COF bilaterally was set at 26.08%
(95% CI: 3.03–58.13%).
Conclusions: In conclusion, we believe that this is the most accurate and up-to-
-date study regarding the anatomy of the COF. The COF is prevalent in 48.37%
of the cases, and it is most frequently unilateral (73.92%). Furthermore, the
prevalence of accessory COFs was found to be 16.72%. The presence of these
foramina may represent a source of haemorrhage that ophthalmic surgeons
should be aware of when performing procedures in the lateral part of the orbit.

Get Citation

Keywords

cranio-orbital foramen, lateral orbit, whitnall tubercle, frontozygomatic suture

About this article
Title

The cranio-orbital foramen: a meta-analysis with a review of the literature

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)

Article type

Review article

Pages

758-765

Published online

2022-09-30

Page views

1089

Article views/downloads

607

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0086

Pubmed

36178278

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):758-765.

Keywords

cranio-orbital foramen
lateral orbit
whitnall tubercle
frontozygomatic suture

Authors

P. Ostrowski
M. Bonczar
J. Iwanaga
R. Canon
M. Dziedzic
B. Kołodziejczyk
A. Juszczak
J. Walocha
M. Koziej

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