open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
Original article
Submitted: 2022-07-22
Accepted: 2022-09-08
Published online: 2022-09-27
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Reference intervals of C2-C7 lateral spinous process deviation in Chinese adults

L.-Q. Liao1, Z.-Y. Feng1, H. Yang1, Y.-K. Li1, M.-X. Chen2
·
Pubmed: 36165898
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):892-897.
Affiliations
  1. Department of TCM Orthopaedics and Traumatology, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
  2. Department of Orthopaedic, Hainan Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Haikou, Hainan, China

open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2022-07-22
Accepted: 2022-09-08
Published online: 2022-09-27

Abstract

Background: Lateral spinous process deviation (LSPD) is a commonly used morphological
parameter in the anatomical study of the cervical spinous process.
However, quantitative studies on this issue are still lacking. In this study we aimed
to establish reference intervals of C2-C7 LSPD in the adult Chinese population and
provide decision-making information for clinical practitioners.
Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of 92 adult patients
who received neck computed tomography scans, including 42 females and
50 males meeting the inclusion criteria. Three-dimensional reconstruction and
anatomical measurements were performed using Mimics Research 19.0 and
3-Matic Research 11.0.
Results: The inter-observer reliability of LSPD measurement in this study was
excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient value > 0.93). Only 2 cases of LSPD
angles of 90 degrees were found, which means most cervical spinous process exist
deviation. The reference interval for the C2-C7 LSPD angle was (85.11, 94.75)
degrees. The C2 LSPD showed the different directions to C5 and C7 (p < 0.05).
In the C4 vertebrae, the male tends to have greater LSPD angles than the female
(T = –2.013, p = 0.047). In the C2 vertebrae, there was a statistically significant but
weak correlation between age and LSPD angles (r = 0.24, p = 0.029). There was
no statistically significant effect of sex or age on other levels of cervical vertebrae.
Conclusions: Cervical spinous process deviation of less than 5 degrees on either
side is a common morphological manifestation in Chinese adults. Thus, LSPD may
not be an indicator for clinical care. Moreover, the vertebrae may have opposite
directions of LSPD in the upper levels (C2-C4) and lower levels (C5-C7).

Abstract

Background: Lateral spinous process deviation (LSPD) is a commonly used morphological
parameter in the anatomical study of the cervical spinous process.
However, quantitative studies on this issue are still lacking. In this study we aimed
to establish reference intervals of C2-C7 LSPD in the adult Chinese population and
provide decision-making information for clinical practitioners.
Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of 92 adult patients
who received neck computed tomography scans, including 42 females and
50 males meeting the inclusion criteria. Three-dimensional reconstruction and
anatomical measurements were performed using Mimics Research 19.0 and
3-Matic Research 11.0.
Results: The inter-observer reliability of LSPD measurement in this study was
excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient value > 0.93). Only 2 cases of LSPD
angles of 90 degrees were found, which means most cervical spinous process exist
deviation. The reference interval for the C2-C7 LSPD angle was (85.11, 94.75)
degrees. The C2 LSPD showed the different directions to C5 and C7 (p < 0.05).
In the C4 vertebrae, the male tends to have greater LSPD angles than the female
(T = –2.013, p = 0.047). In the C2 vertebrae, there was a statistically significant but
weak correlation between age and LSPD angles (r = 0.24, p = 0.029). There was
no statistically significant effect of sex or age on other levels of cervical vertebrae.
Conclusions: Cervical spinous process deviation of less than 5 degrees on either
side is a common morphological manifestation in Chinese adults. Thus, LSPD may
not be an indicator for clinical care. Moreover, the vertebrae may have opposite
directions of LSPD in the upper levels (C2-C4) and lower levels (C5-C7).

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Keywords

morphology, cervical vertebra, lateral spinous process deviation, computerized tomography, retrospective analysis

About this article
Title

Reference intervals of C2-C7 lateral spinous process deviation in Chinese adults

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)

Article type

Original article

Pages

892-897

Published online

2022-09-27

Page views

716

Article views/downloads

558

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0083

Pubmed

36165898

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):892-897.

Keywords

morphology
cervical vertebra
lateral spinous process deviation
computerized tomography
retrospective analysis

Authors

L.-Q. Liao
Z.-Y. Feng
H. Yang
Y.-K. Li
M.-X. Chen

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