open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
Case report
Submitted: 2022-06-10
Accepted: 2022-08-16
Published online: 2022-08-25
Get Citation

Metopic skull with occipitalisation of the atlas

S. Y. Nikolova1, D. H. Toneva1
·
Pubmed: 36165902
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):988-996.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anthropology and Anatomy, Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria

open access

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)
CASE REPORTS
Submitted: 2022-06-10
Accepted: 2022-08-16
Published online: 2022-08-25

Abstract

In this study we report a combination of anatomic variations in the neurocranium
of an adult male skull. The skull is scanned using an industrial μCT system Nikon
XT H 225. The cranial vault shows a persistent metopic suture, a remnant from
the mendosal suture and supernumerary bones. Cranial base inspection reveals
atlas occipitalisation (AO), basilar kyphosis, unusually shaped dorsum sellae and
bilateral interclinoid bridging. AO is extensive without signs of atlantooccipital
articulation. The anterior and posterior arches of the atlas and the right transverse
process are fussed to the occipital bone above. The complete fusion of the posterior
arch causes a formation of bone canals for the vertebral arteries passage
into the cranium. AO in this case is not related to a reduction of the foramen
magnum dimensions and clivus length.

Abstract

In this study we report a combination of anatomic variations in the neurocranium
of an adult male skull. The skull is scanned using an industrial μCT system Nikon
XT H 225. The cranial vault shows a persistent metopic suture, a remnant from
the mendosal suture and supernumerary bones. Cranial base inspection reveals
atlas occipitalisation (AO), basilar kyphosis, unusually shaped dorsum sellae and
bilateral interclinoid bridging. AO is extensive without signs of atlantooccipital
articulation. The anterior and posterior arches of the atlas and the right transverse
process are fussed to the occipital bone above. The complete fusion of the posterior
arch causes a formation of bone canals for the vertebral arteries passage
into the cranium. AO in this case is not related to a reduction of the foramen
magnum dimensions and clivus length.

Get Citation

Keywords

persistent metopic suture, atlas assimilation, supernumerary calvarial bones, wormian bones, intraclinoid bridging, caroticoclinoid foramen, posterior interclinoid foramen

About this article
Title

Metopic skull with occipitalisation of the atlas

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 4 (2023)

Article type

Case report

Pages

988-996

Published online

2022-08-25

Page views

871

Article views/downloads

499

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0079

Pubmed

36165902

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(4):988-996.

Keywords

persistent metopic suture
atlas assimilation
supernumerary calvarial bones
wormian bones
intraclinoid bridging
caroticoclinoid foramen
posterior interclinoid foramen

Authors

S. Y. Nikolova
D. H. Toneva

References (40)
  1. Ashley-Montagu MF. The medio-frontal suture and the problem of metopism in the primates. J Roy Anthrop Inst Great Britain Ireland. 1937; 67: 157–201.
  2. Al-Motabagani MA, Surendra M. Total occipitalization of the atlas. Anat Sci Int. 2006; 81(3): 173–180.
  3. Archana R, Anita R, Jyoti C, et al. Incidence of osseous interclinoid bars in Indian population. Surg Radiol Anat. 2010; 32(4): 383–387.
  4. Black S, Scheuer L. Occipitalization of the atlas with reference to its embryological development. Int J Osteoarchaeol. 1996; 6(2): 189–194, doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-1212(199603)6:2<189::aid-oa259>3.0.co;2-d.
  5. Bodon G, Glasz T, Olerud C. Anatomical changes in occipitalization: is there an increased risk during the standard posterior approach? Eur Spine J. 2013; 22 Suppl 3(Suppl 3): S512–S516.
  6. Castriota-Scanderbeg А, Dallapiccola B. Abnormal skeletal phenotypes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 2005.
  7. Cunningham C, Scheuer L, Black S. Developmental Juvenile Osteology. Academic Press, London 2016.
  8. Faro C, Benoit B, Wegrzyn P, et al. Three-dimensional sonographic description of the fetal frontal bones and metopic suture. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 26(6): 618–621.
  9. Hanihara T, Ishida H. Frequency variations of discrete cranial traits in major human populations. II. Hypostotic variations. J Anat. 2002; 198(6): 707–725.
  10. Hauser G, DeStefano GF. Epigenetic variants of the human skull. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchandlung, Stuttgart 1989.
  11. Janssen N, Mebis W, Gielen J. Unilateral paracondylar-epitransverse neo-articulation with secondary atlas-axis rotation anomaly: teaching point: variants of the craniovertebral junction can be depicted and characterized on CT. J Belg Soc Radiol. 2019; 103(1): 42.
  12. Kadanoff D, Mutafov S. The human skull in a medico-anthropological aspect: form, dimensions and variability. Prof. Marin Drinov Academic Publishing House, Sofia 1984.
  13. Koenigsberg RA, Vakil N, Hong TA, et al. Evaluation of platybasia with MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005; 26(1): 89–92.
  14. Mann RW, Hunt DR, Lozanoff S. Photographic Regional Atlas Of Non-Metric Traits And Anatomical Variants In The Human Skeleton. Charles C Thomas Publisher, Springfield 2016: IL.
  15. Matsumura G, Uchiumi T, Kida K, et al. Developmental studies on the interparietal part of the human occipital squama. J Anat. 1993; 182(Pt 2): 197–204.
  16. Natsis K, Lyrtzis C, Totlis T, et al. A morphometric study of the atlas occipitalization and coexisted congenital anomalies of the vertebrae and posterior cranial fossa with neurological importance. Surg Radiol Anat. 2017; 39(1): 39–49.
  17. Nikolova SY, Toneva DH, Yordanov YA, et al. Multiple Wormian bones and their relation with definite pathological conditions in a case of an adult cranium. Anthropol Anz. 2014; 71(3): 169–190.
  18. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Yordanov Y, et al. Variations in the squamous part of the occipital bone in medieval and contemporary cranial series from Bulgaria. Folia Morphol. 2014; 73(4): 429–438.
  19. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Georgiev I. A case of skeletal dysplasia in bone remains from a contemporary male individual. Acta Morphologica et Anthropologica. 2015; 22: 97–107.
  20. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Georgiev IA. persistent metopic suture – Incidence and influence on the frontal sinus development (preliminary data). Acta Morphologica et Anthropologica. 2016; 23: 83–90.
  21. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Georgiev I, et al. Two cases of large bregmatic bone along with a persistent metopic suture from necropoles on the northern Black Sea coast of Bulgaria. Anthropol Sci. 2016; 124(2): 145–153.
  22. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Georgiev I. Cranial Base angulation in metopic and non-metopic cranial series. Acta Morphologica et Anthropologica. 2017; 24: 45–49.
  23. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Georgiev I, et al. Digital radiomorphometric analysis of the frontal sinus and assessment of the relation between persistent metopic suture and frontal sinus development. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2018; 165(3): 492–506.
  24. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Georgiev I, et al. Relation between metopic suture persistence and frontal sinus development. Challenging Issues on Paranasal Sinuses. 2019.
  25. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Georgiev I, et al. Sagittal suture maturation: Morphological reorganization, relation to aging, and reliability as an age-at-death indicator. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2019; 169(1): 78–92.
  26. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Agre G, et al. Data mining for peculiarities in the configuration of neurocranium when the metopic suture persists. Anthropol Anz. 2020; 77(2): 89–107.
  27. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Lazarov N. A comparative digital morphometric study of nasofrontal region in metopic and non-metopic cranial series. Anthropol Anz. 2021; 78(4): 347–358.
  28. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Agre G, et al. Influence of persistent metopic suture on sagittal suture closure. Ann Anat. 2022; 239: 151811.
  29. Nikolova S, Toneva D, Tasheva-Terzieva E, et al. Cranial morphology in metopism: A comparative geometric morphometric study. Ann Anat. 2022; 243: 151951.
  30. Penkrot RJ, Bures C. The "apparently" eroded dorsum sella: a new anomaly. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1979; 132(6): 1005–1006.
  31. Pott LN, Austin RM, Eller AR, et al. Population-level assessment of atlas occipitalization in artificially modified crania from pre-Hispanic Peru. PLoS One. 2020; 15(9): e0239600.
  32. Radinsky L. Relative brain size: a new measure. Science. 1967; 155(3764): 836–838.
  33. Sañudo JR, Vázquez R, Puerta J. Meaning and clinical interest of the anatomical variations in the 21st century. Eur J Anat. 2003; 7(S1): 1–3.
  34. Toneva D, Nikolova S, Harizanov S, et al. Sex estimation by size and shape of foramen magnum based on CT imaging. Leg Med. 2018; 35: 50–60.
  35. Torgersen J. A roentgenological study of the metopic suture. Acta Radiol. 2013; Original Series, Volume 33(1): 1–11.
  36. Tubbs RS, Salter EG, Oakes WJ. The intracranial entrance of the atlantal segment of the vertebral artery in crania with occipitalization of the atlas. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006; 4(4): 319–322.
  37. Vinchon M. The metopic suture: Natural history. Neurochirurgie. 2019; 65(5): 239–245.
  38. Weinzweig J, Kirschner RE, Farley A, et al. Metopic synostosis: Defining the temporal sequence of normal suture fusion and differentiating it from synostosis on the basis of computed tomography images. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003; 112(5): 1211–1218.
  39. Zdilla MJ, Russell ML, Koons AW, et al. Metopism: a study of the persistent metopic suture. J Craniofac Surg. 2018; 29(1): 204–208.
  40. Żytkowski A, Skrzat J, Mazurek A, et al. Clinical relevance of the caroticoclinoid foramen – A case report and concise literature review. Transl Res Anat. 2021; 25: 100153.

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By VM Media Group sp. z o.o., Grupa Via Medica, Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.: +48 58 320 94 94, faks: +48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl