Vol 80, No 4 (2021)
Original article
Published online: 2021-11-05

open access

Page views 6654
Article views/downloads 665
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Quantitative anatomy of primary ossification centres of the lateral and basilar parts of the occipital bone in the human foetus

M. Grzonkowska1, M. Baumgart1, M. Badura1, M. Wiśniewski1, J. Lisiecki1, M. Szpinda1
Pubmed: 34750804
Folia Morphol 2021;80(4):895-903.

Abstract

Background: Computed tomography (CT)-based quantitative analysis of primary ossification centres in the cranium has not been carried out to date due to the limited availability of the foetal human material. Detailed morphometric data about the development of primary ossification centres in human foetuses may be useful in the early detection of developmental defects. Understanding the growth and development of the occipital bone is crucial in assessing the normal and pathological development of the cranial base, and the cranium as a whole.
Materials and methods: The study material comprised 37 human foetuses (16 males and 21 females) aged 18–30 weeks of gestation. Using CT, digital image analysis software, three-dimensional reconstruction and statistical methods, the size of the primary ossification centres of the lateral and basilar parts of the occipital bone was evaluated.
Results: The morphometric characteristics of primary ossification centres of the lateral and basilar parts of the occipital bone display neither sex nor laterality differences. These ossification centres grow linearly with respect to their sagittal and transverse diameters, projection surface area and volume.
Conclusions: The obtained morphometric data of primary ossification centres in the lateral and basilar parts of the occipital bone may be considered as normative for their respective prenatal weeks and may contribute to the estimation of gestational ages and the diagnostics of congenital defects.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file

References

  1. Badiu GA, Tarţa-Arsene E, Ispas AT, et al. Estimation of the age from fetal occipital bone. Rev Rom Anat Funcţ Clin Macro Microsc Antropol. 2019; 18(3): 165–168.
  2. Bernard S, Loukas M, Rizk E, et al. The human occipital bone: review and update on its embryology and molecular development. Childs Nerv Syst. 2015; 31(12): 2217–2223.
  3. Chano T, Matsumoto K, Ishizawa M, et al. Analysis of the presence of osteocalcin, S-100 protein, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in cells of various types of osteosarcomas. Eur J Histochem. 1996; 40(3): 189–198.
  4. Duarte WR, Shibata T, Takenaga K, et al. S100A4: a novel negative regulator of mineralization and osteoblast differentiation. J Bone Miner Res. 2003; 18(3): 493–501.
  5. Grzonkowska M, Baumgart M, Badura M, et al. Morphometric study of the primary ossification center of the frontal squama in the human fetus. Surg Radiol Anat. 2020; 42(7): 733–740.
  6. Grzonkowska M, Baumgart M, Badura M, et al. Quantitative anatomy of the fused ossification center of the occipital squama in the human fetus. PLoS One. 2021; 16(2): e0247601.
  7. Lee SK, Kim YS, Jo YA, et al. Prenatal development of cranial base in normal Korean fetuses. Anat Rec. 1996; 246(4): 524–534, doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185(199612)246:4<524::AID-AR11>3.0.CO;2-Q.
  8. Morimoto N, Ogihara N, Katayama K, et al. Three-dimensional ontogenetic shape changes in the human cranium during the fetal period. J Anat. 2008; 212(5): 627–635.
  9. Nemzek WR, Brodie HA, Hecht ST, et al. MR, CT, and plain film imaging of the developing skull base in fetal specimens. Am J Neuroradiol. 2000; 21(9): 1699–1706.
  10. Shapiro R, Robinson F. Embryogenesis of the human occipital bone. Am J Roentgenol. 1976; 126(5): 1063–1068.
  11. Skrzat J, Mróz I, Jaworek JK, et al. A case of occipitalization in the human skull. Folia Morphol. 2010; 69(3): 134–137.
  12. Wysocki J, Bubrowski M, Szymański I. Developmental anomalies of the atlantooccipital region and their meaning for disturbances of hearing and balance (in Polish). Otorynolaryngologia. 2003; 2(2): 65–71.
  13. Zhang Q, Wang H, Udagawa J, et al. Morphological and morphometric study on sphenoid and basioccipital ossification in normal human fetuses. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2011; 51(3): 138–148.