open access

Ahead of Print
Review article
Submitted: 2021-08-08
Accepted: 2021-10-11
Published online: 2021-10-26
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Factors causing variability in formation of coronary collaterals during coronary artery disease

S. Balakrishnan1, B. Senthil Kumar2
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2021.0110
·
Pubmed: 34699051
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Institute of Integrated Medical Sciences, Palakkad, Kerala, India
  2. Department of Anatomy Vinayaka Mission’s Kirupananda Variyar Medical College, Vinayaka Missions Research Foundation (DU), Salem, Tamilnadu, India

open access

Ahead of Print
REVIEW ARTICLES
Submitted: 2021-08-08
Accepted: 2021-10-11
Published online: 2021-10-26

Abstract

Coronary artery disease is one of the major cause of death worldwide. Coronary artery disease are  narrowing of coronary arteries that prevents adequate blood supply to the heart muscles results in Acute coronary syndrome which includes unstable angina and myocardial infarction. The only remedy for it is to restore the perfusion through percutaneous Intervention and grafting which may sometime cause reperfusion injury and other complications. Coronary collaterals are small inter-arterial connections that act as natural bypass which provide blood flow to the vascular territory, when the artery supplying to it gets obstructed. Acute collateral recruitment can be done, as a remedy for these adverse cardiac events. Various methods of therapies have been focussed, for the promotion and sustenance of functional coronary collaterals. The determinants of human coronary collaterals give clear evidence for prognosis in coronary artery diseases and a new insight for further therapeutic promotion of coronary collaterals. This review mainly focus into various studies done on coronary collaterals and the affect of various demographic, morphological and cardiovascular risk factors in the formation of coronary collaterals during obstructive Coronary artery disease. Many studies prove that various independent variables like morphology of coronary artery, location of the lesion, duration of the occlusion, coronary dominance, biochemical factors, cardiac risk factors like diabetes, hypertension also affects collateral formation. The current update review gives a holistic view on coronary collaterals and findings of various authors on the affect of these independent variables on collateral formation.

Abstract

Coronary artery disease is one of the major cause of death worldwide. Coronary artery disease are  narrowing of coronary arteries that prevents adequate blood supply to the heart muscles results in Acute coronary syndrome which includes unstable angina and myocardial infarction. The only remedy for it is to restore the perfusion through percutaneous Intervention and grafting which may sometime cause reperfusion injury and other complications. Coronary collaterals are small inter-arterial connections that act as natural bypass which provide blood flow to the vascular territory, when the artery supplying to it gets obstructed. Acute collateral recruitment can be done, as a remedy for these adverse cardiac events. Various methods of therapies have been focussed, for the promotion and sustenance of functional coronary collaterals. The determinants of human coronary collaterals give clear evidence for prognosis in coronary artery diseases and a new insight for further therapeutic promotion of coronary collaterals. This review mainly focus into various studies done on coronary collaterals and the affect of various demographic, morphological and cardiovascular risk factors in the formation of coronary collaterals during obstructive Coronary artery disease. Many studies prove that various independent variables like morphology of coronary artery, location of the lesion, duration of the occlusion, coronary dominance, biochemical factors, cardiac risk factors like diabetes, hypertension also affects collateral formation. The current update review gives a holistic view on coronary collaterals and findings of various authors on the affect of these independent variables on collateral formation.

Get Citation

Keywords

angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, percutaneous intervention, collateralization, vascular endothelial growth factors, shear stress, ER-oestrogen receptors

About this article
Title

Factors causing variability in formation of coronary collaterals during coronary artery disease

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Review article

Published online

2021-10-26

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2021.0110

Pubmed

34699051

Keywords

angiogenesis
arteriogenesis
percutaneous intervention
collateralization
vascular endothelial growth factors
shear stress
ER-oestrogen receptors

Authors

S. Balakrishnan
B. Senthil Kumar

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