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Original article
Submitted: 2021-07-15
Accepted: 2021-09-10
Published online: 2021-09-15
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Does the phenotypic morphology of the human brachial plexus reflect the theoretical development of concomitant regulation in thoracolumbar spines and nerves?

T. Kawashima1, K. Ishiguro1, F. Sato1
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2021.0094
·
Pubmed: 34545555
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Toho University, Tokyo, Japan

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2021-07-15
Accepted: 2021-09-10
Published online: 2021-09-15

Abstract

Background: Experimental evidences identified that thoracolumbar mutants caused by Hox genes 7-10 mutants also involve a craniocaudal shift and/or the addition or reduction of segments of the limb plexus roots. This study investigated whether the theoretical concomitant shift of the brachial plexus roots in human different thoracolumbar counts is shared as confirmed in those of the human lumbosacral plexus.

Material and methods: The phenotypic morphology of the brachial plexus and its arterial interaction on 20 sides of 10 atypical human thoracolumbar counts out of the 354 sides of the 177 cadavers, were compared with those of 52 sides of 26 cases in a typical human vertebral formula (7C_12T_5L_5S).

Results: Regardless of the course and branching patterns of the axillary artery, our results showed that the main brachial plexus roots were composed of only five segments of the 5th–9th spinal nerves, with small contributions from the 4th and/or 10th nerves. This root composition is identical to a typical human thoracolumbar formula, and therefore, neither a craniocaudal shift nor additional/reduced main roots occurred in our thoracolumbar variants.

Conclusions: Unlike the concomitant shift of the lumbosacral plexus roots, our present cases suggest that the phenotypic morphology of the human brachial plexus may be less likely to show theoretical craniocaudal shifts, further data on the root changes in different vertebral formulae are needed for its accurate validation.

Abstract

Background: Experimental evidences identified that thoracolumbar mutants caused by Hox genes 7-10 mutants also involve a craniocaudal shift and/or the addition or reduction of segments of the limb plexus roots. This study investigated whether the theoretical concomitant shift of the brachial plexus roots in human different thoracolumbar counts is shared as confirmed in those of the human lumbosacral plexus.

Material and methods: The phenotypic morphology of the brachial plexus and its arterial interaction on 20 sides of 10 atypical human thoracolumbar counts out of the 354 sides of the 177 cadavers, were compared with those of 52 sides of 26 cases in a typical human vertebral formula (7C_12T_5L_5S).

Results: Regardless of the course and branching patterns of the axillary artery, our results showed that the main brachial plexus roots were composed of only five segments of the 5th–9th spinal nerves, with small contributions from the 4th and/or 10th nerves. This root composition is identical to a typical human thoracolumbar formula, and therefore, neither a craniocaudal shift nor additional/reduced main roots occurred in our thoracolumbar variants.

Conclusions: Unlike the concomitant shift of the lumbosacral plexus roots, our present cases suggest that the phenotypic morphology of the human brachial plexus may be less likely to show theoretical craniocaudal shifts, further data on the root changes in different vertebral formulae are needed for its accurate validation.

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Keywords

thoracolumbar mutant, brachial plexus, human development, anatomy, phenotypic morphology, vertebral formula

About this article
Title

Does the phenotypic morphology of the human brachial plexus reflect the theoretical development of concomitant regulation in thoracolumbar spines and nerves?

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2021-09-15

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2021.0094

Pubmed

34545555

Keywords

thoracolumbar mutant
brachial plexus
human development
anatomy
phenotypic morphology
vertebral formula

Authors

T. Kawashima
K. Ishiguro
F. Sato

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