open access

Ahead of Print
Case report
Submitted: 2021-05-22
Accepted: 2021-07-26
Published online: 2021-09-15
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Premature termination of the sympathetic chain

Y. Mansour12, R. J. Kulesza1
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2021.0089
·
Pubmed: 34545560
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Erie, PA, United States
  2. Henry Ford Macomb Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology - Facial Plastic Surgery

open access

Ahead of Print
CASE REPORTS
Submitted: 2021-05-22
Accepted: 2021-07-26
Published online: 2021-09-15

Abstract

The sympathetic chain serves to distribute visceral efferents and afferents over the entire body. The sympathetic chain courses from the base of the skull to the coccyx and sends branches to distribute along spinal nerves and a number of visceral nerves that distribute to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands. During dissection of the posterior abdominal wall, we identified a rare variation of the sympathetic chain. In this subject, the sympathetic chain failed to send gray rami to the L2-4 spinal nerves and terminated by joining the S1 anterior ramus. Such a variation has only been reported once in the literature in 1895. We provide both schematic and photographic documentation of this variation and propose a number of possible circuits whereby visceral axons can reach their target despite these anatomical barriers.

Abstract

The sympathetic chain serves to distribute visceral efferents and afferents over the entire body. The sympathetic chain courses from the base of the skull to the coccyx and sends branches to distribute along spinal nerves and a number of visceral nerves that distribute to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands. During dissection of the posterior abdominal wall, we identified a rare variation of the sympathetic chain. In this subject, the sympathetic chain failed to send gray rami to the L2-4 spinal nerves and terminated by joining the S1 anterior ramus. Such a variation has only been reported once in the literature in 1895. We provide both schematic and photographic documentation of this variation and propose a number of possible circuits whereby visceral axons can reach their target despite these anatomical barriers.

Get Citation

Keywords

anatomy, neuroscience, neuroanatomy, human body

About this article
Title

Premature termination of the sympathetic chain

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Case report

Published online

2021-09-15

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2021.0089

Pubmed

34545560

Keywords

anatomy
neuroscience
neuroanatomy
human body

Authors

Y. Mansour
R. J. Kulesza

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