Folia Morphologica

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Original article
Submitted: 2020-07-12
Accepted: 2020-11-14
Published online: 2020-12-05
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Morphometric analysis of the apical foramina in extracted human teeth

M. Z. Manva1, S. Sheereen2, M. K. Hans3, R. Alroomy1, S. K. Mallineni4
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2020.0143
·
Pubmed: 33330969
Affiliations
  1. Majmaah University, College of Dentistry, 11952 Al-zulfi, Saudi Arabia
  2. Saraswati Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital, Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 11952 Parbhani, India
  3. Geetanjali Dental and Research Institute, Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
  4. Majmaah University, Pediatric Dentistry, 11952 Al-zulfi, Saudi Arabia

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2020-07-12
Accepted: 2020-11-14
Published online: 2020-12-05

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the morphology of shapes and positions of the apical foramen in permanent maxillary and mandibular human teeth.

Methods: The anatomic parameters include shapes (rounded, oval, uneven, flat and semilunar) and location (center, buccal/labial, lingual/palatal, mesial, and distal) of the apical foramina was evaluated. The shapes and locations of apical foramen based on arch (maxillary and mandibular), position (anterior and posterior) and Tooth type (central incisor, lateral incisor, canine, premolars, and molars) were used for the analysis. All the teeth were investigated for the apical foramina shape and location using a stereomicroscope at a magnification of 10X. Descriptive statistics performed using SPSS (Version 21.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA) at p value less than 0.05.

Results: The common shape of apical foramina was round (65%) and location was center (32%). The frequency of deviation of apical was 68% in overall teeth. Apical foramina in maxillary anterior teeth showed more deviation while posterior teeth in mandibular teeth.  The most common shape of apical foramina was round (65.1%)  followed by (31%)  and flat and semilunar shapes are very rare in studied subjects.

Conclusions: The most frequent direction of deviation is the distal surface, followed by the mesial surface. The variation is more common in mandibular posterior teeth, while maxillary posteriors showed the least difference. The commonest shape of the apical foramen is of a round shape, followed by the oval. The oval shape of the apical foramen is most frequent with central incisors.

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the morphology of shapes and positions of the apical foramen in permanent maxillary and mandibular human teeth.

Methods: The anatomic parameters include shapes (rounded, oval, uneven, flat and semilunar) and location (center, buccal/labial, lingual/palatal, mesial, and distal) of the apical foramina was evaluated. The shapes and locations of apical foramen based on arch (maxillary and mandibular), position (anterior and posterior) and Tooth type (central incisor, lateral incisor, canine, premolars, and molars) were used for the analysis. All the teeth were investigated for the apical foramina shape and location using a stereomicroscope at a magnification of 10X. Descriptive statistics performed using SPSS (Version 21.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA) at p value less than 0.05.

Results: The common shape of apical foramina was round (65%) and location was center (32%). The frequency of deviation of apical was 68% in overall teeth. Apical foramina in maxillary anterior teeth showed more deviation while posterior teeth in mandibular teeth.  The most common shape of apical foramina was round (65.1%)  followed by (31%)  and flat and semilunar shapes are very rare in studied subjects.

Conclusions: The most frequent direction of deviation is the distal surface, followed by the mesial surface. The variation is more common in mandibular posterior teeth, while maxillary posteriors showed the least difference. The commonest shape of the apical foramen is of a round shape, followed by the oval. The oval shape of the apical foramen is most frequent with central incisors.

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Keywords

apical foramina, morphology, location, shape, root, stereomicroscope

About this article
Title

Morphometric analysis of the apical foramina in extracted human teeth

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2020-12-05

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2020.0143

Pubmed

33330969

Keywords

apical foramina
morphology
location
shape
root
stereomicroscope

Authors

M. Z. Manva
S. Sheereen
M. K. Hans
R. Alroomy
S. K. Mallineni

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