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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2019-09-03
Submitted: 2019-07-16
Accepted: 2019-08-18
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Effect of high-fat diet-induced obesity on thyroid gland structure in female rats and the possible ameliorating effect of metformin therapy

Sayed Mostafa El-Sayed, Hussein Mohamed Ibrahim
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2019.0100
·
Pubmed: 31489607

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2019-09-03
Submitted: 2019-07-16
Accepted: 2019-08-18

Abstract

Background: Obesity is known to induce a state of lipotoxicity that affects the different organs of the body. Metformin is an antidiabetic drug commonly used in obesity treatment. It was known to improve thyroid function and its regulating hormones. Structural changes in the thyroid gland associated with obesity were not investigated well. So, the aim of the present study is to detect structural changes in thyroid gland induced by obesity and to investigate the possible protective role of metformin therapy.

Materials and methods: Thirty adult female albino rats were divided into three groups (10 rats each). Group I (control group), group II (rats fed with a high-fat diet), and group III (rats fed with a high-fat diet and received metformin therapy). After 12 weeks, rats from all groups were sacrificed. Blood samples were taken for measurement of lipid profile, TSH, free T3 and free T4. Thyroid glands were extracted & processed for histological & ultrastructural study. Morphometric measurements for the colloid area of thyroid follicles and height of the follicular cells were done.

Results: Group I displayed normal biochemical parameters and architecture of the thyroid gland. Group II revealed disordered lipid profile, high TSH, free T3 and T4. Microscopically, large thyroid follicles with excessive colloid accumulation and decreased follicular cells height. Some follicular cells showed pyknotic nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm and disrupted basement membrane with mast cell infiltration of the thyroid tissue. Ultra-structurally, group II follicular cells showed loss of apical microvilli, dense shrunken nuclei, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, swollen damaged mitochondria with large intracellular vacuoles and colloid droplets. In group III, the biochemical parameters and structure of thyroid follicles were improved, and they had a near-normal appearance.

Conclusions: Obesity induced by high-fat diet in female rats structurally and functionally changed the thyroid gland in a way that may explain hypothyroidism associated with obesity. These changes were improved by metformin therapy.

Abstract

Background: Obesity is known to induce a state of lipotoxicity that affects the different organs of the body. Metformin is an antidiabetic drug commonly used in obesity treatment. It was known to improve thyroid function and its regulating hormones. Structural changes in the thyroid gland associated with obesity were not investigated well. So, the aim of the present study is to detect structural changes in thyroid gland induced by obesity and to investigate the possible protective role of metformin therapy.

Materials and methods: Thirty adult female albino rats were divided into three groups (10 rats each). Group I (control group), group II (rats fed with a high-fat diet), and group III (rats fed with a high-fat diet and received metformin therapy). After 12 weeks, rats from all groups were sacrificed. Blood samples were taken for measurement of lipid profile, TSH, free T3 and free T4. Thyroid glands were extracted & processed for histological & ultrastructural study. Morphometric measurements for the colloid area of thyroid follicles and height of the follicular cells were done.

Results: Group I displayed normal biochemical parameters and architecture of the thyroid gland. Group II revealed disordered lipid profile, high TSH, free T3 and T4. Microscopically, large thyroid follicles with excessive colloid accumulation and decreased follicular cells height. Some follicular cells showed pyknotic nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm and disrupted basement membrane with mast cell infiltration of the thyroid tissue. Ultra-structurally, group II follicular cells showed loss of apical microvilli, dense shrunken nuclei, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, swollen damaged mitochondria with large intracellular vacuoles and colloid droplets. In group III, the biochemical parameters and structure of thyroid follicles were improved, and they had a near-normal appearance.

Conclusions: Obesity induced by high-fat diet in female rats structurally and functionally changed the thyroid gland in a way that may explain hypothyroidism associated with obesity. These changes were improved by metformin therapy.

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Keywords

thyroid gland structure, obesity, high-fat diet, metformin

About this article
Title

Effect of high-fat diet-induced obesity on thyroid gland structure in female rats and the possible ameliorating effect of metformin therapy

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Published online

2019-09-03

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2019.0100

Pubmed

31489607

Keywords

thyroid gland structure
obesity
high-fat diet
metformin

Authors

Sayed Mostafa El-Sayed
Hussein Mohamed Ibrahim

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