Vol 80, No 4 (2021)
Original article
Published online: 2020-11-24

open access

Page views 6666
Article views/downloads 1186
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Parietal foramen: incidence and topography

J. Naidoo1, J. S. Luckrajh1, L. Lazarus1
Pubmed: 33241848
Folia Morphol 2021;80(4):980-984.

Abstract

Background: The parietal foramen (PF) is a small inconsistent aperture located at the border of the middle 1/3 and posterior 1/3 of the parietal bone near the sagittal suture and is considered an emissary foramen. Cranial emissary foramina are of utmost importance due to the structures that traverse the foramen. Variations in these foramina are common. Knowledge of the PF is important when performing neurosurgical procedures as the emissary vessels are at risk.
Materials and methods: The present study used 100 dry adult calvaria to determine the frequency of PF, the diameter of the PF, as well as topography of the PF (using the sagittal suture as an anatomical landmark).
Results: A total of 32% of calvaria had PF present bilaterally; whilst 35% of calvaria had unilateral PF. The study also reports 5% calvaria in which PF were present on the sagittal suture. The mean diameter recorded was 1.55 mm (0.74–3.08 mm), and the mean distance between the lateral margin of the PF and the sagittal suture was 9.02 mm (4.44–18.20 mm).
Conclusions: Knowledge of the incidence and topography of the PF may aid neurosurgeons in creating and adjusting techniques and procedures in order to mitigate the risk of injury to emissary veins and other structures emerging from the PF.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file

References

  1. Agarwal P, Baranwal S, Pandey M, et al. Large midline persistent parietal foramina with occipital encephalocele and abnormal venous drainage. JCLPA. 2015; 2(1): 66–69.
  2. Berge JK, Bergman RA. Variations in size and in symmetry of foramina of the human skull. Clin Anat. 2001; 14(6): 406–413.
  3. Berry AC, Berry RJ. Epigenetic variation in the human cranium. J Anat. 1967; 101(Pt 2): 361–379.
  4. Boyd GI. The emissary foramina of the cranium in man and the anthropoids. J Anat. 1930; 65(Pt 1): 108–121.
  5. Collipal E, Silva H, Quintas F, et al. Morphometry study of the parietal foramen. Int J Morphol. 2009; 27: 481–484.
  6. Debbarma S, Zaidi SHH, Mishra A, et al. A study of parietal foramen in North Indian population. JMS. 2015; 5(2): 143–145.
  7. Gangmei G, Devi HS, Daimei T, et al. Variations of parietal foramen in dried adult human skulls. IOSR-JDMS. 2018: 26–29.
  8. Halagatti M, Sagar S. An anatomical study of parietal emissary foramina in dry adult human skulls. IJARS. 2018: 20.
  9. Keskil S, Gözil R, Calgüner E. Common surgical pitfalls in the skull. Surg Neurol. 2003; 59(3): 228–231.
  10. Makandar UK, Kulkarni PR, Suryakar AN. Comparative study of incidence of parietal foramina in north and south indian human crania. Indian J Forensic Med Toxicol. 2013; 7(2): 123–127.
  11. Mann R, Manabe J, Byrd J. Relationship of the Parietal Foramen and Complexity of the Human Sagittal Suture. Int J Morphol. 2009; 27(2).
  12. Mortazavi MM, Tubbs RS, Riech S, et al. Anatomy and pathology of the cranial emissary veins: a review with surgical implications. Neurosurgery. 2012; 70(5): 1312–8; discussion 1318.
  13. Moore KL, Dalley AF. Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 5th Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 2006: 897.
  14. Murlimanju BV, Saralaya VV, Somesh MS, et al. Morphology and topography of the parietal emissary foramina in South Indians: an anatomical study. Anat Cell Biol. 2015; 48(4): 292–298.
  15. Pereira GA, Lopes PT, Santos AM, et al. Study of landmarks in dried skulls in a Brazil population. J Morphol Sci. 2013; 30(2): 94–97.
  16. Shantharam V, Manjunath KY. Anatomical study of parietal emissary foramina in human skulls. IJARS. 2018; 7(1): A011–A014.
  17. Singh PR, Raibagkar CJ. Study of variation in atypical foramina of dry human skull. NJIRM. 2011; 2(2): 1–5.
  18. Wysocki J, Reymond J, Skarzyński H, et al. The size of selected human skull foramina in relation to skull capacity. Folia Morphol. 2006; 65(4): 301–308.
  19. Yılmaz E, Yetim A, Erol OB, et al. Multiple occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal foramina: a variant of enlarged parietal foramina in an infant. Balkan Med J. 2014; 31(4): 345–348.
  20. Yoshioka N, Rhoton AL, Abe H. Scalp to meningeal arterial anastomosis in the parietal foramen. Neurosurgery. 2006; 58(1 Suppl): ONS123–ONS126.