open access

Vol 79, No 2 (2020)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2019-07-17
Submitted: 2019-02-13
Accepted: 2019-04-01
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Comparative topographic analyses on the foramen magnums of two hystricomorphs: the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) and greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus). Implications for typology, phylogeny and evolution in rodents

M. O. Samuel, N. Wanmi, J. Oopade
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2019.0083
·
Pubmed: 31322723
·
Folia Morphol 2020;79(2):374-386.

open access

Vol 79, No 2 (2020)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2019-07-17
Submitted: 2019-02-13
Accepted: 2019-04-01

Abstract

Background: This investigation aims to assess species comparison of foramen magnums in two hystricomorphs and endeavours an inter-species categorisation of individual shape outline.

Materials and methods: This study utilised 35 skull samples of different ages from the crested porcupine (H. cristata) (17) and the greater cane rat (T. swinderianus) (18) through. Elliptical Fourier Analysis, and the two-block Partial Least Squares analysis. Elliptical Fourier descriptor analyses presented marked amplitude related attenuations according to harmonics factor (1/10 to 2,980) in T. swinderianus though angular orientations in the major axis were not profoundly affected by size-normalisation in this species but up-regulated in H. cristata; (1/10 to1/95).

Results: Within and between groups analyses revealed PC1&2 contributed 98.94% and 1.06% but 100% PC1 between groups. The 1st to 4th harmonics gave full topographic description of the foramen magnums in both, 1st–3rd harmonics details compared differently revealing shape variance concentrated in posterolateral and posterior regions of the foramen magnum in the porcupine but antero-lateral and dorsal in cane rats, components of morphological asymmetry were demonstrated from 6th to 12th harmonics. Stepwise discriminant analysis of harmonic increments and Mahalanobis distance exposed increasing disparities between both up to the 5 th harmonic (Bonferroni-corrected p-values [277.2, p < 0.002] group centroids) and a slightly lower value in variance for cane rats 0.421 and 0.378 for porcupines. A (58.3% and 33.3%); (94.1% and 11.1%) proportion before and after size-normalised evaluations of porcupines and cane rats size factor removal yielded 35.8% increase in accuracy among crested porcupines but 22.2% decline in cane rats. Dimorphic variations were less frequently expressed in cane rats corresponding to 33.3% and 44.2%. Size normalisation effect brought a reverse situation with an increased difference (11.1% in T. swinderianus; 5.9% in H. cristata). Individual specimen distribution along discriminant axis pooled by discriminant scores depicted less morphologic variability with greater overlaps.

Conclusions: We observe that complexities in foramen magnum architecture between these indicates parcellation of shape and size variance and contributes as evidence for structural evolution, systematics, fundamental similarities and differences offers an explanation that both are related through evolutionary proces of descent as baseline data and further support the suggestion; hystricidae in phylogenetic tree are better evolved and separate from thryonomidae.

Abstract

Background: This investigation aims to assess species comparison of foramen magnums in two hystricomorphs and endeavours an inter-species categorisation of individual shape outline.

Materials and methods: This study utilised 35 skull samples of different ages from the crested porcupine (H. cristata) (17) and the greater cane rat (T. swinderianus) (18) through. Elliptical Fourier Analysis, and the two-block Partial Least Squares analysis. Elliptical Fourier descriptor analyses presented marked amplitude related attenuations according to harmonics factor (1/10 to 2,980) in T. swinderianus though angular orientations in the major axis were not profoundly affected by size-normalisation in this species but up-regulated in H. cristata; (1/10 to1/95).

Results: Within and between groups analyses revealed PC1&2 contributed 98.94% and 1.06% but 100% PC1 between groups. The 1st to 4th harmonics gave full topographic description of the foramen magnums in both, 1st–3rd harmonics details compared differently revealing shape variance concentrated in posterolateral and posterior regions of the foramen magnum in the porcupine but antero-lateral and dorsal in cane rats, components of morphological asymmetry were demonstrated from 6th to 12th harmonics. Stepwise discriminant analysis of harmonic increments and Mahalanobis distance exposed increasing disparities between both up to the 5 th harmonic (Bonferroni-corrected p-values [277.2, p < 0.002] group centroids) and a slightly lower value in variance for cane rats 0.421 and 0.378 for porcupines. A (58.3% and 33.3%); (94.1% and 11.1%) proportion before and after size-normalised evaluations of porcupines and cane rats size factor removal yielded 35.8% increase in accuracy among crested porcupines but 22.2% decline in cane rats. Dimorphic variations were less frequently expressed in cane rats corresponding to 33.3% and 44.2%. Size normalisation effect brought a reverse situation with an increased difference (11.1% in T. swinderianus; 5.9% in H. cristata). Individual specimen distribution along discriminant axis pooled by discriminant scores depicted less morphologic variability with greater overlaps.

Conclusions: We observe that complexities in foramen magnum architecture between these indicates parcellation of shape and size variance and contributes as evidence for structural evolution, systematics, fundamental similarities and differences offers an explanation that both are related through evolutionary proces of descent as baseline data and further support the suggestion; hystricidae in phylogenetic tree are better evolved and separate from thryonomidae.

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Keywords

integration, modularity, foramen magnum, morphology, hystricomorpha

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Title

Comparative topographic analyses on the foramen magnums of two hystricomorphs: the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) and greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus). Implications for typology, phylogeny and evolution in rodents

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 79, No 2 (2020)

Pages

374-386

Published online

2019-07-17

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2019.0083

Pubmed

31322723

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2020;79(2):374-386.

Keywords

integration
modularity
foramen magnum
morphology
hystricomorpha

Authors

M. O. Samuel
N. Wanmi
J. Oopade

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