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Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-10-19
Submitted: 2018-09-02
Accepted: 2018-09-28
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Evaluation of the factors associated with sublingual varices: a descriptive clinical study

Nursel Akkaya, Duygu Ölmez, Gökhan Özkan
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2018.0101
·
Pubmed: 30371931

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-10-19
Submitted: 2018-09-02
Accepted: 2018-09-28

Abstract

Background: Age is considered as an important factor for the development of sublingual varices (SV). It has been suggested that some other conditions such as gender, systemic diseases, smoking, denture wearing may play a role in etiology. However, there is a limited number of studies investigating these associations. This study was perform to evaluate association between SV and the conditions which are described as possible risk factors previously.

Materials and methods: A total of 691 patients (470 females, 221 males) who attended for comprehensive clinical examination were included in the study. Age, gender, systemic health, venous varix of the lower extremities, smoking status, denture wearing were recorded during the history taking. SV were classified into two categories: Stage 0 (few or none visible) and Stage 1: (moderate or severe). Tongue photographs were taken from a group of these patients. For the evaluation of intra-observer reliability, 60 photographs of tongue were re-evaluated by the same observer. Intra-observer reliability was evaluated using Kappa statistics. Pearson chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test were used to assess SV in relation to each variable, and variables showing associations with P < 0.05 were selected for the multivariable analysis, then logistic regression analysis was applied.

Results: Kappa value of intra-observer reliability was 0.91. SV were significantly associated with age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.08, P = 0.000), hypertension (OR = 2.3, P = 0.007) and denture wearing (OR = 2.17, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: The presence of SV is associated with hypertension and denture wearing as well as aging. More detailed studies are needed to prove causative relations between SV and systemic diseases.

Abstract

Background: Age is considered as an important factor for the development of sublingual varices (SV). It has been suggested that some other conditions such as gender, systemic diseases, smoking, denture wearing may play a role in etiology. However, there is a limited number of studies investigating these associations. This study was perform to evaluate association between SV and the conditions which are described as possible risk factors previously.

Materials and methods: A total of 691 patients (470 females, 221 males) who attended for comprehensive clinical examination were included in the study. Age, gender, systemic health, venous varix of the lower extremities, smoking status, denture wearing were recorded during the history taking. SV were classified into two categories: Stage 0 (few or none visible) and Stage 1: (moderate or severe). Tongue photographs were taken from a group of these patients. For the evaluation of intra-observer reliability, 60 photographs of tongue were re-evaluated by the same observer. Intra-observer reliability was evaluated using Kappa statistics. Pearson chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test were used to assess SV in relation to each variable, and variables showing associations with P < 0.05 were selected for the multivariable analysis, then logistic regression analysis was applied.

Results: Kappa value of intra-observer reliability was 0.91. SV were significantly associated with age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.08, P = 0.000), hypertension (OR = 2.3, P = 0.007) and denture wearing (OR = 2.17, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: The presence of SV is associated with hypertension and denture wearing as well as aging. More detailed studies are needed to prove causative relations between SV and systemic diseases.

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Keywords

varicose veins/etiology, age factor, hypertension/complications, dentures/adverse effect, tongue/blood supply, odds ratio

About this article
Title

Evaluation of the factors associated with sublingual varices: a descriptive clinical study

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Published online

2018-10-19

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2018.0101

Pubmed

30371931

Keywords

varicose veins/etiology
age factor
hypertension/complications
dentures/adverse effect
tongue/blood supply
odds ratio

Authors

Nursel Akkaya
Duygu Ölmez
Gökhan Özkan

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