open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-09-17
Submitted: 2018-05-21
Accepted: 2018-07-27
Get Citation

Greater palatine foramen: assesment with palatal ındex, shape, number and gender

Alpen Ortug, Mehmet Uzel
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2018.0088
·
Pubmed: 30234897

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-09-17
Submitted: 2018-05-21
Accepted: 2018-07-27

Abstract

Accurate knowledge of location and relation with different parameters of the greater palatine foramen (GPF) is a crucial necessity in performing a variety of anaesthesiological, dental and surgical procedures. The main aim of this study was to identify the GPF’s locations, numbers and shapes via associating with gender and palatal indices and compare with literature results. This study was held on the cranium collections of the many anatomy departments in Turkey. Various metric assestments were observed on sexed, dry, total 97 craniums. Thirty eight male cranium observed and mean values of palatal indices was 86.28±10.75 and for 48 female cranium mean value for palatal indices was 81.06±10.56. Location of GPF observed bilaterally and mostly found near the third upper molar in either of both males and females. It was 62.7% (right), 60.9% (left) for male craniums and 49.0% (right) and 47.1% (left) for female craniums observed near the lateral border of upper 3rd molar. GPF found oval shape for male craniums 62.8% (right) and 61.0% (left) and for female craniums 66.0% (right) and 66.0% (left). These results were compared with to already existing anatomical data in other races and populations. This results would have great clinical influence in localizing the palatine foramina toward better palatal area surgical approaches to and anaesthetise this area.

Abstract

Accurate knowledge of location and relation with different parameters of the greater palatine foramen (GPF) is a crucial necessity in performing a variety of anaesthesiological, dental and surgical procedures. The main aim of this study was to identify the GPF’s locations, numbers and shapes via associating with gender and palatal indices and compare with literature results. This study was held on the cranium collections of the many anatomy departments in Turkey. Various metric assestments were observed on sexed, dry, total 97 craniums. Thirty eight male cranium observed and mean values of palatal indices was 86.28±10.75 and for 48 female cranium mean value for palatal indices was 81.06±10.56. Location of GPF observed bilaterally and mostly found near the third upper molar in either of both males and females. It was 62.7% (right), 60.9% (left) for male craniums and 49.0% (right) and 47.1% (left) for female craniums observed near the lateral border of upper 3rd molar. GPF found oval shape for male craniums 62.8% (right) and 61.0% (left) and for female craniums 66.0% (right) and 66.0% (left). These results were compared with to already existing anatomical data in other races and populations. This results would have great clinical influence in localizing the palatine foramina toward better palatal area surgical approaches to and anaesthetise this area.

Get Citation

Keywords

greater palatine foramen, lesser palatine foramen, hard palate, palatal index, palatal anesthesia

About this article
Title

Greater palatine foramen: assesment with palatal ındex, shape, number and gender

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Published online

2018-09-17

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2018.0088

Pubmed

30234897

Keywords

greater palatine foramen
lesser palatine foramen
hard palate
palatal index
palatal anesthesia

Authors

Alpen Ortug
Mehmet Uzel

References (36)
  1. Ajmani ML. Anatomical variation in position of the greater palatine foramen in the adult human skull. J Anat. 1994; 184 ( Pt 3): 635–637.
  2. Canter SR, Slavkin HC, Canter MR. Anatomical study of pterygopalatine fossa and canal: considerations applicable to the anesthetization of the second division of the fifth cranial nerve. J Oral Surg Anesth Hosp Dent Serv. 1964; 22: 318–323.
  3. Chentanez V, Kaweewongprasert S, Thunvarachorn P, et al. Position of greater palatine foramens, length and direction of greater palatine canals: anatomic study of 120 adult human skulls. Chula Med J. 1985; 29: 1187–97.
  4. Chrcanovic BR, Custódio ALN. Anatomical variation in the position of the greater palatine foramen. J Oral Sci. 2010; 52(1): 109–113.
  5. D’Souza AS, Mamatha H, Nayak J. Morphometric analysis of hard palate in south Indian skulls. Biomed Res. 2012; 23: 173–175.
  6. Dave MR, Gupta S, Vyas KK, et al. study of palatal indices and bony prominences and grooves in the hard palate of adult human skulls. NJIRM. 2013; 4(1): 7–11.
  7. Diyarbakırlı S, Keleç P. Foramen palatinum majus varyasyonları. Atatürk Üniv Diş Hek Fak Derg. 1996; 6(1): 37–39.
  8. Douglas R, Wormald PJ. Pterygopalatine fossa infiltration through the greater palatine foramen: where to bend the needle. Laryngoscope. 2006; 116(7): 1255–1257.
  9. Ducic Y, Herford AS. The use of palatal island flaps as an adjunct to microvascular free tissue transfer for reconstruction of complex oromandibular defects. Laryngoscope. 2001; 111(9): 1666–1669.
  10. Erimoğlu C, Özbayrak T, Kökten G. Foramen palatinum majus ve canalis palatinus majorun anatoma-morfolojik varyasyonları. JIUFD 1983;17(3-4. : 144–157.
  11. Gardner E, Gray DJ, Rahilly R. Anatomy: a regional study of human structure. 4th edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders. 1975.
  12. Gibelli D, Borlando A, Dolci C, et al. Anatomical characteristics of greater palatine foramen: a novel point of view. Surg Radiol Anat. 2017; 39(12): 1359–1368.
  13. Gözil R, Şakul BU, Çalgüner E, et al. Sert damak morfometrisi ve torus palatinus, sutura palatina transversa şekilleri. Turkiye Klinikleri J Dental Sci. 1999; 5(3): 149–153.
  14. Harnet JC, Lombardi T, Lutz JC, et al. Sagittal craniofacial growth evaluated on children dry skulls using V2 and V3 canal openings as references. Surg Radiol Anat. 2007; 29(7): 589–594.
  15. Hassanali J, Mwaniki D. Palatal analysis and osteology of the hard palate of the Kenyan African skulls. Anat Rec. 1984; 209(2): 273–280.
  16. Ikuta CR, Cardoso CL, Ferreira-Júnior O, et al. Position of the greater palatine foramen: an anatomical study through cone beam computed tomography images. Surg Radiol Anat. 2013; 35(9): 837–842.
  17. Jaffar AA, Hamadah HJ. An analysis of the position of the greater palatine foramen. J Basic Med Sci. 2003; 3(1): 24–32.
  18. Jones RG. The reduction of bleeding in hare-lip and cleft-palate surgery. Br J Anaesth. 1962; 34: 481–488.
  19. Jotania B, Patel SV, Patel SM, et al. Morphometric analysis of hard palate. Int J Res Med. 2013; 2(2): 72–75.
  20. Kumar A, Anu S, Poonam S. Assessment of the relative location of greater palatine foramen in adult Indian skulls: Consideration for maxillary nerve block. Eur J Anat. 2011; 15(3): 150–154.
  21. Langenegger JJ, Lownie JF, Cleaton-Jones PE. The relationship of the greater palatine foramen to the molar teeth and pterygoid hamulus in human skulls. J Dent. 1983; 11(3): 249–256.
  22. Methathrathip D, Apinhasmit W, Chompoopong S, et al. Anatomy of greater palatine foramen and canal and pterygopalatine fossa in Thais: considerations for maxillary nerve block. Surg Radiol Anat. 2005; 27(6): 511–516.
  23. Moore KL. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 5th ed. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore 2006: 886–996.
  24. Nevin M, Puterbaugh PG. Conduction, Infiltration, and General Anesthesia in Dentistry. 4th ed. Brooklyn: Dental Items Interest Pub. 1938.
  25. Nimigean V, Nimigean VR, Buţincu L, et al. Anatomical and clinical considerations regarding the greater palatine foramen. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2013; 54(3 Suppl): 779–783.
  26. Piagkou M, Xanthos T, Anagnostopoulou S, et al. Anatomical variation and morphology in the position of the palatine foramina in adult human skulls from Greece. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012; 40(7): e206–e210.
  27. Romanes GJ. Cunningham Textbook ofAnatomy. 12th ed. New York: Oxford University Press. 1981.
  28. Sakul BU, Turkaslan AK. and Kose S.K. The examination of the asymmetry on the human dry skull. X. International Symposium on Morphological Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, July 1-5. 1991(Poster No 88).
  29. Saralaya V, Nayak SR. The relative position of the greater palatine foramen in dry Indian skulls. Singapore Med J. 2007; 48(12): 1143–1146.
  30. Sejrsen B, Kjaer I, Jakobsen J. Human palatal growth evaluated on medieval crania using nerve canal openings as references. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1996; 99(4): 603–611.
  31. Seldin H. Practical Anesthesia for Dental and Oral Surgery, Local and General. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 1942.
  32. Shane SME. Principles of Sedation, Local, and General Anesthesia in Dentistry. Springfield: Thomas. 1975.
  33. Sharma NA, Garud RS. Greater palatine foramen--key to successful hemimaxillary anaesthesia: a morphometric study and report of a rare aberration. Singapore Med J. 2013; 54(3): 152–159.
  34. Tomaszewska IM, Tomaszewski KA, Kmiotek EK, et al. Anatomical landmarks for the localization of the greater palatine foramen--a study of 1200 head CTs, 150 dry skulls, systematic review of literature and meta-analysis. J Anat. 2014; 225(4): 419–435.
  35. Wang TM, Kuo KJ, Shih C, et al. Assessment of the relative locations of the greater palatine foramen in adult Chinese skulls. Acta Anat (Basel). 1988; 132(3): 182–186.
  36. Westmoreland EE, Blanton PL. An analysis of the variations in position of the greater palatine foramen in the adult human skull. Anat Rec. 1982; 204(4): 383–388.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl