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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-11-20
Submitted: 2018-05-04
Accepted: 2018-06-08
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Sex prediction by metric and non-metric analysis of the hard palate and the pyriform aperture

Nilton Alves, Naira Figueiredo Deana, Francisco Ceballos, Pamela Hernandez, Javier Gonzalez
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2018.0109
·
Pubmed: 30484270

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-11-20
Submitted: 2018-05-04
Accepted: 2018-06-08

Abstract

Background: Analysis of the bones and bone fragments of the cranium may be a useful tool for sex diagnosis in the identification of human remains which have been exposed to adverse conditions.  The object of the present study was to evaluate sex prediction through metric and non-metric analysis of the hard palate (HP) and the pyriform aperture (PA), using macerated skulls of adult individuals.

Materials and methods: We analysed 312 dry skulls of adult individuals of both sexes, studying the metric and non-metric characteristics of the hard palate and pyriform aperture. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were evaluated. A binary logistic regression and a linear regression were performed.  The ROC curve was constructed to analyse the performance of sex diagnosis. Measurements of the HP and the PA were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. The SPSS v.20.0 software was used, with a significance threshold of 5%.

Results: The shape of the PA presented 61.9% accuracy, 54.4% sensitivity and 65.7% specificity. The shape of the HP presented 51.5% accuracy, 65.6% sensitivity and 44.7% specificity. Only the height of the PA functioned as a good predictor of sex.

Conclusions: The height of the PA produced good diagnostic performance (area under curve=0.764). The height of the PA was the most reliable indicator for sex prediction, and could be used by forensic scientists to identify sex.

Abstract

Background: Analysis of the bones and bone fragments of the cranium may be a useful tool for sex diagnosis in the identification of human remains which have been exposed to adverse conditions.  The object of the present study was to evaluate sex prediction through metric and non-metric analysis of the hard palate (HP) and the pyriform aperture (PA), using macerated skulls of adult individuals.

Materials and methods: We analysed 312 dry skulls of adult individuals of both sexes, studying the metric and non-metric characteristics of the hard palate and pyriform aperture. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were evaluated. A binary logistic regression and a linear regression were performed.  The ROC curve was constructed to analyse the performance of sex diagnosis. Measurements of the HP and the PA were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. The SPSS v.20.0 software was used, with a significance threshold of 5%.

Results: The shape of the PA presented 61.9% accuracy, 54.4% sensitivity and 65.7% specificity. The shape of the HP presented 51.5% accuracy, 65.6% sensitivity and 44.7% specificity. Only the height of the PA functioned as a good predictor of sex.

Conclusions: The height of the PA produced good diagnostic performance (area under curve=0.764). The height of the PA was the most reliable indicator for sex prediction, and could be used by forensic scientists to identify sex.

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Keywords

pyriform aperture, hard palate, sex prediction

About this article
Title

Sex prediction by metric and non-metric analysis of the hard palate and the pyriform aperture

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Published online

2018-11-20

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2018.0109

Pubmed

30484270

Keywords

pyriform aperture
hard palate
sex prediction

Authors

Nilton Alves
Naira Figueiredo Deana
Francisco Ceballos
Pamela Hernandez
Javier Gonzalez

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