open access

Vol 77, No 4 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-02-20
Submitted: 2017-12-21
Accepted: 2018-01-30
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Variations of the cephalic vein anterior to the clavicle in humans

S. Kameda, O. Tanaka, H. Terayama, T. Kanazawa, R. Sakamoto, S. Tetsu, K. Sakabe
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2018.0018
·
Pubmed: 29500894
·
Folia Morphol 2018;77(4):677-682.

open access

Vol 77, No 4 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-02-20
Submitted: 2017-12-21
Accepted: 2018-01-30

Abstract

Background: Clinicians should understand that jugulocephalic vein (JCV) variants may be occasionally found. This study aims to classify JCV variants and obtain their frequency.

Materials and methods: We investigated anatomical variants of the cephalic vein in 55 human cadavers during a gross anatomy course at our medical school.

Results: The percentage of JCVs that pass through the anterior part of the clavicle and anastomose to the jugular vein as per previous studies and our study was 2–5%. Five cases with anastomosis between the cephalic and external jugular veins that pass through the anterior part of the clavicle were found. The courses were classified into 1A, 1B, 2A, and 2B. Type 1 extends beyond the clavicle and anastomoses with the external jugular vein. Type 2 follows the same course as type 1, but anastomoses with the subclavian vein. Subtype A does not have a branch that anastomoses with the axillary vein, whereas subtype B does. We encountered two cases of type 1A and three of type 1B.

Conclusions: Four anatomical variants of the cephalic vein around the clavicle were identified. Clinicians’ knowledge of these variants is expected to decrease possible complications if venous access via the cephalic vein is needed.

Abstract

Background: Clinicians should understand that jugulocephalic vein (JCV) variants may be occasionally found. This study aims to classify JCV variants and obtain their frequency.

Materials and methods: We investigated anatomical variants of the cephalic vein in 55 human cadavers during a gross anatomy course at our medical school.

Results: The percentage of JCVs that pass through the anterior part of the clavicle and anastomose to the jugular vein as per previous studies and our study was 2–5%. Five cases with anastomosis between the cephalic and external jugular veins that pass through the anterior part of the clavicle were found. The courses were classified into 1A, 1B, 2A, and 2B. Type 1 extends beyond the clavicle and anastomoses with the external jugular vein. Type 2 follows the same course as type 1, but anastomoses with the subclavian vein. Subtype A does not have a branch that anastomoses with the axillary vein, whereas subtype B does. We encountered two cases of type 1A and three of type 1B.

Conclusions: Four anatomical variants of the cephalic vein around the clavicle were identified. Clinicians’ knowledge of these variants is expected to decrease possible complications if venous access via the cephalic vein is needed.

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Keywords

cadavers, clavicle, jugulocephalic vein, anatomical variants

About this article
Title

Variations of the cephalic vein anterior to the clavicle in humans

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 77, No 4 (2018)

Pages

677-682

Published online

2018-02-20

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2018.0018

Pubmed

29500894

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2018;77(4):677-682.

Keywords

cadavers
clavicle
jugulocephalic vein
anatomical variants

Authors

S. Kameda
O. Tanaka
H. Terayama
T. Kanazawa
R. Sakamoto
S. Tetsu
K. Sakabe

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