open access

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-01-08
Submitted: 2017-10-27
Accepted: 2017-12-14
Get Citation

An anatomical variant: evaluation of accessory canals of the canalis sinuosus using cone beam computed tomography

K. Orhan, C. Gorurgoz, M. Akyol, S. Ozarslanturk, H. Avsever
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2018.0003
·
Pubmed: 29345719
·
Folia Morphol 2018;77(3):551-557.

open access

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-01-08
Submitted: 2017-10-27
Accepted: 2017-12-14

Abstract

Background: The anatomical variation of the anterior superior alveolar nerve described as canalis sinuosus (CS) is a less known structure of anterior maxilla. Due to the fact that it contains anterior superior alveolar nerve as well as veins and arteries, exact localisation of this structure will allow surgeons to avoid complications. Hence, the aim of this study was to verify the presence, reveal the frequency and characteristics of accessory canals of CS.
Materials and methods: This study was based on retrospective evaluation of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. A total of 1460 CBCT images were analysed and collected data were noted. The following parameters were recorded: age, sex, presence or absence of CS, location in relation to the adjacent
teeth and impaction of canine teeth.
Results: A total of 6668 accessory canals were found in 1460 CBCT images. Of these, 672 (46.0%) were from female patients, and 788 (54.0%) were from male patients. 1034 (70.8%) of 1460 images had at least one accessory canal of CS. Maxillary intercentral region is the area where accessory canals were seen most
frequently (n = 653, 44.72%).
Conclusions: Canalis sinuosus is a bony canal which is incidentally found and less known structure of anterior portion of maxilla. Knowing the accessory canals deriving from this structure will allow surgeons to avoid complications and non-integration after dental implant procedures. Conventional imaging modalities have limited value in detecting this neurovascular structures. Therefore CBCT may have an important role for accurate diagnosis to reveal anatomical variations.

Abstract

Background: The anatomical variation of the anterior superior alveolar nerve described as canalis sinuosus (CS) is a less known structure of anterior maxilla. Due to the fact that it contains anterior superior alveolar nerve as well as veins and arteries, exact localisation of this structure will allow surgeons to avoid complications. Hence, the aim of this study was to verify the presence, reveal the frequency and characteristics of accessory canals of CS.
Materials and methods: This study was based on retrospective evaluation of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. A total of 1460 CBCT images were analysed and collected data were noted. The following parameters were recorded: age, sex, presence or absence of CS, location in relation to the adjacent
teeth and impaction of canine teeth.
Results: A total of 6668 accessory canals were found in 1460 CBCT images. Of these, 672 (46.0%) were from female patients, and 788 (54.0%) were from male patients. 1034 (70.8%) of 1460 images had at least one accessory canal of CS. Maxillary intercentral region is the area where accessory canals were seen most
frequently (n = 653, 44.72%).
Conclusions: Canalis sinuosus is a bony canal which is incidentally found and less known structure of anterior portion of maxilla. Knowing the accessory canals deriving from this structure will allow surgeons to avoid complications and non-integration after dental implant procedures. Conventional imaging modalities have limited value in detecting this neurovascular structures. Therefore CBCT may have an important role for accurate diagnosis to reveal anatomical variations.

Get Citation

Keywords

canalis sinuosus; anatomical variation; cone beam computed tomography

About this article
Title

An anatomical variant: evaluation of accessory canals of the canalis sinuosus using cone beam computed tomography

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)

Pages

551-557

Published online

2018-01-08

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2018.0003

Pubmed

29345719

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2018;77(3):551-557.

Keywords

canalis sinuosus
anatomical variation
cone beam computed tomography

Authors

K. Orhan
C. Gorurgoz
M. Akyol
S. Ozarslanturk
H. Avsever

References (19)
  1. Allareddy V, Vincent SD, Hellstein JW, et al. Incidental findings on cone beam computed tomography images. Int J Dent. 2012; 2012: 871532.
  2. de Oliveira-Santos C, Rubira-Bullen IRF, Monteiro SAC, et al. Neurovascular anatomical variations in the anterior palate observed on CBCT images. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2013; 24(9): 1044–1048.
  3. Elnaz Moslehifard. Computer Aided Techniques Developed for Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in Implantology, Implant Dentistry - The Most Promising Discipline of Dentistry 2011, Prof. Ilser Turkyilmaz (Ed.), ISBN:978-953-307-481-8.
  4. Greenstein G, Tarnow D. The mental foramen and nerve: clinical and anatomical factors related to dental implant placement: a literature review. J Periodontol. 2006; 77(12): 1933–1943.
  5. Hu KS, Kwak HH, Song WC, et al. Branching patterns of the infraorbital nerve and topography within the infraorbital space. J Craniofac Surg. 2006; 17(6): 1111–1115.
  6. Imada TS, Fernandes LM, Centurion BS, et al. Accessory mental foramina: prevalence, position and diameter assessed by cone-beam computed tomography and digital panoramic radiographs. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2014; 25(2): e94–e99.
  7. Liang X, Jacobs R, Martens W, et al. Macro- and micro-anatomical, histological and computed tomography scan characterization of the nasopalatine canal. J Clin Periodontol. 2009; 36(7): 598–603.
  8. Machado Vd, Chrcanovic BR, Felippe MB, et al. Assessment of accessory canals of the canalis sinuosus: a study of 1000 cone beam computed tomography examinations. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016; 45(12): 1586–1591.
  9. Manhães Júnior LR, Villaça-Carvalho MF, Moraes ME, et al. Location and classification of Canalis sinuosus for cone beam computed tomography: avoiding misdiagnosis. Braz Oral Res. 2016; 30(1): e49.
  10. Mraiwa N, Jacobs R, Moerman P, et al. Presence and course of the incisive canal in the human mandibular interforaminal region: two-dimensional imaging versus anatomical observations. Surg Radiol Anat. 2003; 25(5-6): 416–423.
  11. Neves FS, Crusoé-Souza M, Franco LC, et al. Canalis sinuosus: a rare anatomical variation. Surg Radiol Anat. 2012; 34(6): 563–566.
  12. Price JB, Thaw KL, Tyndall DA, et al. Incidental findings from cone beam computed tomography of the maxillofacial region: a descriptive retrospective study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012; 23(11): 1261–1268.
  13. Shelley AM, Rushton VE, Horner K. Canalis sinuosus mimicking a periapical inflammatory lesion. Br Dent J. 1999; 186(8): 378–379.
  14. Torres MG, de Faro Valverde L, Vidal MT, et al. Branch of the canalis sinuosus: a rare anatomical variation: a case report. Surg Radiol Anat. 2015; 37(7): 879–881.
  15. von Arx T, Lozanoff S. Anterior superior alveolar nerve (ASAN). Swiss Dent J. 2015; 125(11): 1202–1209.
  16. von Arx T, Lozanoff S, Sendi P, et al. Assessment of bone channels other than the nasopalatine canal in the anterior maxilla using limited cone beam computed tomography. Surg Radiol Anat. 2013; 35(9): 783–790.
  17. Wanzeler AM, Marinho CG, Alves Junior SM, et al. Anatomical study of the canalis sinuosus in 100 cone beam computed tomography examinations. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015; 19(1): 49–53.
  18. Warhekar S, Nagarajappa S, Dasar PL, et al. Incidental findings on cone beam computed tomography and reasons for referral by dental practitioners in indore city (m.p). J Clin Diagn Res. 2015; 9(2): ZC21–ZC24.
  19. Warwick R, Williams PL. Williams PL. Grays anatomy 35th ed Longman. : Edinburg.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl