open access

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-12-13
Submitted: 2017-10-11
Accepted: 2017-11-27
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Facial soft tissue thicknesses in Bulgarian adults: relation to sex, body mass index and bilateral asymmetry

D. Toneva, S. Nikolova, I. Georgiev, S. Harizanov, D. Zlatareva, V. Hadjidekov, N. Lazarov
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0114
·
Pubmed: 29235090
·
Folia Morphol 2018;77(3):570-582.

open access

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-12-13
Submitted: 2017-10-11
Accepted: 2017-11-27

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study is to measure the facial soft tissue thicknesses (STTs) in Bulgarians, to evaluate the relation of the STTs to the nutritional status, sex and bilateral asymmetry, and to examine the correlations between the separate STTs as well as between the STTs and body weight, height, and body mass index (BMI). In the present study, the facial STTs were measured on computed tomography scans of the head of Bulgarian adults. Materials and methods: The STTs were measured at 7 midline and 9 bilateral landmarks. The measurements were performed in the free software InVesalius in the axial and sagittal planes. The mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values, median and coefficient of variation were reported for the STT at each landmark according to the sex and BMI category. The BMI, sex and bilateral differences were assessed for statistical significance. Pearson correlation analysis was applied to assess the strength and direction of the relationships between the STTs and body height, weight and BMI, as well as between separate STTs. Results and Conclusions: The facial soft tissues in Bulgarian adults changed in accordance with the nutritional status of the individual and in both sexes all STTs augmented with the increasing BMI. For both normal and overweight BMI categories, males had more soft tissue at the majority of facial points than females, as the only exceptions were observed in the cheek zone, where STTs were thicker in females. Significant bilateral differences were observed in either sex and BMI category. Stronger correlations were established for the STTs in the jaw region and between the cheek and jaw soft tissues. Besides, the correlations between the homologous bilateral landmarks were among the strongest ones.

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study is to measure the facial soft tissue thicknesses (STTs) in Bulgarians, to evaluate the relation of the STTs to the nutritional status, sex and bilateral asymmetry, and to examine the correlations between the separate STTs as well as between the STTs and body weight, height, and body mass index (BMI). In the present study, the facial STTs were measured on computed tomography scans of the head of Bulgarian adults. Materials and methods: The STTs were measured at 7 midline and 9 bilateral landmarks. The measurements were performed in the free software InVesalius in the axial and sagittal planes. The mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values, median and coefficient of variation were reported for the STT at each landmark according to the sex and BMI category. The BMI, sex and bilateral differences were assessed for statistical significance. Pearson correlation analysis was applied to assess the strength and direction of the relationships between the STTs and body height, weight and BMI, as well as between separate STTs. Results and Conclusions: The facial soft tissues in Bulgarian adults changed in accordance with the nutritional status of the individual and in both sexes all STTs augmented with the increasing BMI. For both normal and overweight BMI categories, males had more soft tissue at the majority of facial points than females, as the only exceptions were observed in the cheek zone, where STTs were thicker in females. Significant bilateral differences were observed in either sex and BMI category. Stronger correlations were established for the STTs in the jaw region and between the cheek and jaw soft tissues. Besides, the correlations between the homologous bilateral landmarks were among the strongest ones.

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Keywords

soft tissue thickness; computed tomography; sex; body mass index; bilateral asymmetry; Bulgarian adults; facial approximation

About this article
Title

Facial soft tissue thicknesses in Bulgarian adults: relation to sex, body mass index and bilateral asymmetry

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)

Pages

570-582

Published online

2017-12-13

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2017.0114

Pubmed

29235090

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2018;77(3):570-582.

Keywords

soft tissue thickness
computed tomography
sex
body mass index
bilateral asymmetry
Bulgarian adults
facial approximation

Authors

D. Toneva
S. Nikolova
I. Georgiev
S. Harizanov
D. Zlatareva
V. Hadjidekov
N. Lazarov

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