open access

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-01-15
Submitted: 2017-05-31
Accepted: 2017-09-29
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Anatomical characteristics of the lingual foramen in ancient skulls: a cone beam computed tomography study in an Anatolian population

K.O. Demiralp, S. Bayrak, M. Orhan, A. Alan, E. S. Kursun Cakmak, K. Orhan
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2018.0009
·
Pubmed: 29345723
·
Folia Morphol 2018;77(3):514-520.

open access

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2018-01-15
Submitted: 2017-05-31
Accepted: 2017-09-29

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomical features of lingual foramina and their bony canals in Anatolian ancient mandibles (9–10th century) by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: Fifty-eight ancient dry mandibles were scanned with CBCT. Lingual foramina were grouped into midline, paramedian, posterior foramina and combination of these groups. Midline group was also classified according to internal surface of the mandible (gonial tubercles [GTs]). The incidence, vertical distance and diameter of lingual foramina were measured according to age groups and gender. Results: The incidence of the lingual foramen was 96.6%. Midline of the symphysis had the highest incidence (34.4%) of foramina (p < 0.05), followed by both midline and paramedian type (32.8%; p < 0.05). Classification in terms of GT represented class 3 as the most encountered group (28.6%). Number of foramina observed in the mandibles ranged from 0 to 6 with the incidence of 3.4% and 32.8%, respectively. The male and < 35 years groups presented larger measurement values in midline region (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Mandibular lingual foramina and bony canals are frequently present in ancient mandibles. When compared with modern subjects, similar findings are observed according to published literatures. CBCT is also proved to be an effective imaging modality in the detection of lingual foramina and canals in anthropological studies.

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomical features of lingual foramina and their bony canals in Anatolian ancient mandibles (9–10th century) by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: Fifty-eight ancient dry mandibles were scanned with CBCT. Lingual foramina were grouped into midline, paramedian, posterior foramina and combination of these groups. Midline group was also classified according to internal surface of the mandible (gonial tubercles [GTs]). The incidence, vertical distance and diameter of lingual foramina were measured according to age groups and gender. Results: The incidence of the lingual foramen was 96.6%. Midline of the symphysis had the highest incidence (34.4%) of foramina (p < 0.05), followed by both midline and paramedian type (32.8%; p < 0.05). Classification in terms of GT represented class 3 as the most encountered group (28.6%). Number of foramina observed in the mandibles ranged from 0 to 6 with the incidence of 3.4% and 32.8%, respectively. The male and < 35 years groups presented larger measurement values in midline region (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Mandibular lingual foramina and bony canals are frequently present in ancient mandibles. When compared with modern subjects, similar findings are observed according to published literatures. CBCT is also proved to be an effective imaging modality in the detection of lingual foramina and canals in anthropological studies.

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Keywords

cone beam computed tomography; oral anatomy; mandible neurovascularisation

About this article
Title

Anatomical characteristics of the lingual foramen in ancient skulls: a cone beam computed tomography study in an Anatolian population

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)

Pages

514-520

Published online

2018-01-15

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2018.0009

Pubmed

29345723

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2018;77(3):514-520.

Keywords

cone beam computed tomography
oral anatomy
mandible neurovascularisation

Authors

K.O. Demiralp
S. Bayrak
M. Orhan
A. Alan
E. S. Kursun Cakmak
K. Orhan

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