open access

Vol 77, No 1 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-07-06
Submitted: 2017-05-21
Accepted: 2017-06-16
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Protective effect of garlic extract against maternal and foetal cerebellar damage induced by lead administration during pregnancy in rats

H. A. Saleh, G. S. Abdel El-Aziz, H. N. Mustafa, A. H. A. Saleh, A. O. Mal, A. H. S. Deifalla, M. Aburas
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0063
·
Pubmed: 28703846
·
Folia Morphol 2018;77(1):1-15.

open access

Vol 77, No 1 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-07-06
Submitted: 2017-05-21
Accepted: 2017-06-16

Abstract

Background: In spite of its industrial usefulness and varied daily uses, lead (Pb) pollution is a widespread ecological problem that faces the humans in the 21th century. Pb was found to produces a wide range of toxic effects including neurotoxicity especially to the developing and young offspring. Recently, the utilisation of herbal plants has received a significant attention where there has been rising awareness in their therapeutic use; among these is the garlic. In light of the above, the current study is designed experimentally in female pregnant rats in order to investigate the beneficial role of garlic extract in the protection from the maternal and foetal cerebellar damage produced by administration of different doses of Pb during pregnancy.

Materials and methods: Positively pregnant female rats were divided into five groups; one control group, two Pb-treated groups (exposed to 160 and 320 mg/kg b.w. of Pb, respectively) and two groups treated with both Pb and garlic (exposed to Pb as previous groups together with 250 mg/kg b.w./day of garlic extract). Treatments started from day 1 to day 20 of pregnancy, where the mother rats of different experimental groups were sacrificed to obtain the foetuses. Pb level in the maternal and foetal blood and cerebellum was estimated by spectrophotometry. Specimens of the cerebellum of different mother and foetal groups were processed to histological and immunohistochemical staining for microscopic examination.

Results: The results showed that administration of Pb to pregnant rats resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity for both mothers and foetuses in the form of decrease in maternal weight gain, placental and foetal weights, brain weight and diminished foetal growth parameters, which were prominent in rat’s group treated with larger dose of Pb. In Pb-treated rats, Pb level in blood and cerebellum was high when compared with the control group. The histopathological examination of the cerebellum of treated dams and foetuses showed marked alterations mainly in the form of Purkinje cell degeneration and lack of development of foetal cerebellum. Co-treatment of garlic extract along with Pb resulted in a significant decrease in Pb levels as compared with those treated with Pb alone with improvement of the histopathological changes.

Conclusions: This study was useful in evaluating the hazardous effects of uncontrolled use of Pb in general and in assessing the developmental and neurotoxicity of foetuses due to exposure during pregnancy in particular. Co-administration of garlic has beneficial effects in amelioration of Pb-induced neurotoxicity and reversing the histopathological changes of the cerebellum of mother rats and foetuses. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 1–15)

Abstract

Background: In spite of its industrial usefulness and varied daily uses, lead (Pb) pollution is a widespread ecological problem that faces the humans in the 21th century. Pb was found to produces a wide range of toxic effects including neurotoxicity especially to the developing and young offspring. Recently, the utilisation of herbal plants has received a significant attention where there has been rising awareness in their therapeutic use; among these is the garlic. In light of the above, the current study is designed experimentally in female pregnant rats in order to investigate the beneficial role of garlic extract in the protection from the maternal and foetal cerebellar damage produced by administration of different doses of Pb during pregnancy.

Materials and methods: Positively pregnant female rats were divided into five groups; one control group, two Pb-treated groups (exposed to 160 and 320 mg/kg b.w. of Pb, respectively) and two groups treated with both Pb and garlic (exposed to Pb as previous groups together with 250 mg/kg b.w./day of garlic extract). Treatments started from day 1 to day 20 of pregnancy, where the mother rats of different experimental groups were sacrificed to obtain the foetuses. Pb level in the maternal and foetal blood and cerebellum was estimated by spectrophotometry. Specimens of the cerebellum of different mother and foetal groups were processed to histological and immunohistochemical staining for microscopic examination.

Results: The results showed that administration of Pb to pregnant rats resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity for both mothers and foetuses in the form of decrease in maternal weight gain, placental and foetal weights, brain weight and diminished foetal growth parameters, which were prominent in rat’s group treated with larger dose of Pb. In Pb-treated rats, Pb level in blood and cerebellum was high when compared with the control group. The histopathological examination of the cerebellum of treated dams and foetuses showed marked alterations mainly in the form of Purkinje cell degeneration and lack of development of foetal cerebellum. Co-treatment of garlic extract along with Pb resulted in a significant decrease in Pb levels as compared with those treated with Pb alone with improvement of the histopathological changes.

Conclusions: This study was useful in evaluating the hazardous effects of uncontrolled use of Pb in general and in assessing the developmental and neurotoxicity of foetuses due to exposure during pregnancy in particular. Co-administration of garlic has beneficial effects in amelioration of Pb-induced neurotoxicity and reversing the histopathological changes of the cerebellum of mother rats and foetuses. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 1–15)

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Keywords

lead, garlic, Purkinje cells, glial fibrillary acidic protein

About this article
Title

Protective effect of garlic extract against maternal and foetal cerebellar damage induced by lead administration during pregnancy in rats

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 77, No 1 (2018)

Pages

1-15

Published online

2017-07-06

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2017.0063

Pubmed

28703846

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2018;77(1):1-15.

Keywords

lead
garlic
Purkinje cells
glial fibrillary acidic protein

Authors

H. A. Saleh
G. S. Abdel El-Aziz
H. N. Mustafa
A. H. A. Saleh
A. O. Mal
A. H. S. Deifalla
M. Aburas

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