open access

Vol 77, No 1 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-06-20
Submitted: 2017-05-18
Accepted: 2017-05-23
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The importance of body mass normalisation for ultrasound measurements of the morphology of oblique abdominis muscles: the effect of age, gender, and sport practice

P. Linek
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0059
·
Pubmed: 28653303
·
Folia Morphol 2018;77(1):123-130.

open access

Vol 77, No 1 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-06-20
Submitted: 2017-05-18
Accepted: 2017-05-23

Abstract

Some studies have not considered body mass as a confounder in analysis of oblique abdominis muscles (OAM) (including the oblique externus [OE] and oblique internus [OI]), which may have led to improper interpretation of results. To assess the differences in the effect of age, gender, and physical activity between normalised for body mass and actual values of the OAM as well as to establish the effect of age, gender, and physical activity on normalised for body mass OAM thicknesses in adolescents. A real-time ultrasound was used to obtain images of the OAM. Body mass normalisation for OAM thicknesses was performed with allometric scaling and the following equations: Allometric-scaled OE = OE thickness/body mass0.88; Allometric-scaled OI = OI thickness/body mass0.72. Analysis showed that boys have significantly thicker OAM than girls, and those who practise sports have thicker OAM than non-active individuals. For allometric-scaled OAM, there was only a significant gender effect, where boys have thicker allometric-scaled OAM than girls. There was a significant correlation between participants’ age and the actual value of the OAM. The correlations between age and allometric-scaled OAM were insignificant. An analysis of OAM without body mass normalisation can lead to improper interpretation of study results. Thus, future studies should analyse OE and OI thickness measurements after normalisation rather than actual values. In the adolescent population, there is no effect of age and physical activity on allometric-scaled OAM; males have thicker allometric-scaled OAM than females. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 123–130)

Abstract

Some studies have not considered body mass as a confounder in analysis of oblique abdominis muscles (OAM) (including the oblique externus [OE] and oblique internus [OI]), which may have led to improper interpretation of results. To assess the differences in the effect of age, gender, and physical activity between normalised for body mass and actual values of the OAM as well as to establish the effect of age, gender, and physical activity on normalised for body mass OAM thicknesses in adolescents. A real-time ultrasound was used to obtain images of the OAM. Body mass normalisation for OAM thicknesses was performed with allometric scaling and the following equations: Allometric-scaled OE = OE thickness/body mass0.88; Allometric-scaled OI = OI thickness/body mass0.72. Analysis showed that boys have significantly thicker OAM than girls, and those who practise sports have thicker OAM than non-active individuals. For allometric-scaled OAM, there was only a significant gender effect, where boys have thicker allometric-scaled OAM than girls. There was a significant correlation between participants’ age and the actual value of the OAM. The correlations between age and allometric-scaled OAM were insignificant. An analysis of OAM without body mass normalisation can lead to improper interpretation of study results. Thus, future studies should analyse OE and OI thickness measurements after normalisation rather than actual values. In the adolescent population, there is no effect of age and physical activity on allometric-scaled OAM; males have thicker allometric-scaled OAM than females. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 123–130)

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Keywords

body mass, normalisation, allometric scaling, oblique internus, oblique externus, abdominal wall morphology

About this article
Title

The importance of body mass normalisation for ultrasound measurements of the morphology of oblique abdominis muscles: the effect of age, gender, and sport practice

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 77, No 1 (2018)

Pages

123-130

Published online

2017-06-20

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2017.0059

Pubmed

28653303

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2018;77(1):123-130.

Keywords

body mass
normalisation
allometric scaling
oblique internus
oblique externus
abdominal wall morphology

Authors

P. Linek

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