open access

Vol 77, No 1 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-07-17
Submitted: 2017-04-10
Accepted: 2017-07-02
Get Citation

Suitability of foramen magnum measurements in sex determination and their clinical significance

A. Metin Tellioglu, Y. Durum, M. Gok, S. Karakas, A. G. Polat, C. Z. Karaman
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0070
·
Pubmed: 28832085
·
Folia Morphol 2018;77(1):99-104.

open access

Vol 77, No 1 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-07-17
Submitted: 2017-04-10
Accepted: 2017-07-02

Abstract

Background: The foramen magnum provides a transition between fossa cranii posterior and canalis vertebralis. Medulla oblongata, arteria vertebralis and nervus accessorius spinal part pass through the foramen magnum. In this study, we aimed to make the morphometric measurements of the foramen magnum on computed tomography (CT) and to determine the feasibility of sex determination based on these measurements. Besides sex determination, from a clinical aspect, it is important to know the measurements of the foramen magnum in the normal population in terms of diseases characterised by displacement of the posterior fossa structures through foramen magnum to upper cervical spinal canal such as Chiari malformations and syringomyelia.

Materials and methods: All the data for our study was obtained retrospectively from 100 patients (50 males, 50 females) who had a CT scan of the head and neck region in Adnan Menderes University Hospital, Department of Radiology. To examine the foramen magnum in each and every occipital bone, we measured the foramen magnum’s anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter, the area of the foramen magnum and its circumference.

Results: We found that men have a higher average value than women in our study. According to Student’s t-test results; in all measured parameters, there is significant difference between the genders (p < 0.05). When multivariate discriminant function test is performed for all four measurements, the discrimination rate is 64% for all women, 70% for all men and 67% for both genders.

Conclusions: As a result of our study, the metric data we obtained will be useful in cases where the skeletons’ sex could not be determined by any other methods. We believe that, our study may be useful for other studies in determining of sex from foramen magnum. Our measurements could give some information of the normal ranges of the foramen magnum in normal population, so that this can contribute to the diagnosis process of some diseases by imaging. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 99–104)  

Abstract

Background: The foramen magnum provides a transition between fossa cranii posterior and canalis vertebralis. Medulla oblongata, arteria vertebralis and nervus accessorius spinal part pass through the foramen magnum. In this study, we aimed to make the morphometric measurements of the foramen magnum on computed tomography (CT) and to determine the feasibility of sex determination based on these measurements. Besides sex determination, from a clinical aspect, it is important to know the measurements of the foramen magnum in the normal population in terms of diseases characterised by displacement of the posterior fossa structures through foramen magnum to upper cervical spinal canal such as Chiari malformations and syringomyelia.

Materials and methods: All the data for our study was obtained retrospectively from 100 patients (50 males, 50 females) who had a CT scan of the head and neck region in Adnan Menderes University Hospital, Department of Radiology. To examine the foramen magnum in each and every occipital bone, we measured the foramen magnum’s anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter, the area of the foramen magnum and its circumference.

Results: We found that men have a higher average value than women in our study. According to Student’s t-test results; in all measured parameters, there is significant difference between the genders (p < 0.05). When multivariate discriminant function test is performed for all four measurements, the discrimination rate is 64% for all women, 70% for all men and 67% for both genders.

Conclusions: As a result of our study, the metric data we obtained will be useful in cases where the skeletons’ sex could not be determined by any other methods. We believe that, our study may be useful for other studies in determining of sex from foramen magnum. Our measurements could give some information of the normal ranges of the foramen magnum in normal population, so that this can contribute to the diagnosis process of some diseases by imaging. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 99–104)  

Get Citation

Keywords

foramen magnum, sex determination, multidetector computed tomography images

About this article
Title

Suitability of foramen magnum measurements in sex determination and their clinical significance

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 77, No 1 (2018)

Pages

99-104

Published online

2017-07-17

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2017.0070

Pubmed

28832085

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2018;77(1):99-104.

Keywords

foramen magnum
sex determination
multidetector computed tomography images

Authors

A. Metin Tellioglu
Y. Durum
M. Gok
S. Karakas
A. G. Polat
C. Z. Karaman

References (27)
  1. Akhlaghi M, Bakhtavar K, Moarefdoost J, et al. Frontal sinus parameters in computed tomography and sex determination. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016; 19: 22–27.
  2. Albanese J. A method for estimating sex using the clavicle, humerus, radius, and ulna. J Forensic Sci. 2013; 58(6): 1413–1419.
  3. Aydin S, Hanimoglu H, Tanriverdi T, et al. Chiari type I malformations in adults: a morphometric analysis of the posterior cranial fossa. Surg Neurol. 2005; 64(3): 237–41; discussion 241.
  4. Cesmebasi A, Loukas M, Hogan E, et al. The Chiari malformations: a review with emphasis on anatomical traits. Clin Anat. 2015; 28(2): 184–194.
  5. Chandrakanth HV, Kanchan T, Krishan K. Osteometric analysis for sexing of modern sternum - an autopsy study from South India. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2014; 16(6): 350–356.
  6. Cirpan S, Yonguc GN, Mas NG, et al. Morphological and Morphometric Analysis of Foramen Magnum: An Anatomical Aspect. J Craniofac Surg. 2016; 27(6): 1576–1578.
  7. Dong H, Deng M, Wang W, et al. Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a contemporary Chinese Han population. Forensic Sci Int. 2015; 255: 9–15.
  8. Gapert R, Black S, Last J. Sex determination from the foramen magnum: discriminant function analysis in an eighteenth and nineteenth century British sample. Int J Legal Med. 2009; 123(1): 25–33.
  9. Gruber P, Henneberg M, Böni T, et al. Variability of human foramen magnum size. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009; 292(11): 1713–1719.
  10. Hartman D, Drummer O, Eckhoff C, et al. The contribution of DNA to the disaster victim identification (DVI) effort. Forensic Sci Int. 2011; 205(1-3): 52–58.
  11. Isik N. Chiary Malformation and Syringomyelia. Türk Nöroşirürji Dergisi. 2013; 23(2): 185–194.
  12. Jain D, Jasuja OP, Nath S. Sex determination of human crania using Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013; 20(4): 255–259.
  13. Kamath VG, Asif M, Shetty R, et al. Binary logistic regression analysis of foramen magnum dimensions for sex determination. Anat Res Int. 2015; 2015: 459428.
  14. Karakas HM, Harma A, Alicioglu B. The subpubic angle in sex determination: anthropometric measurements and analyses on Anatolian Caucasians using multidetector computed tomography datasets. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013; 20(8): 1004–1009.
  15. Kranioti E, Apostol M. Sexual dimorphism of the tibia in contemporary Greeks, Italians, and Spanish: forensic implications. Int J Legal Med. 2015; 29(2): 357–363.
  16. Kranioti EF, Işcan MY, Michalodimitrakis M. Craniometric analysis of the modern Cretan population. Forensic Sci Int. 2008; 180(2-3): 110.e1–110.e5.
  17. Lain R, Taylor J, Croker S, et al. Comparative dental anatomy in Disaster Victim Identification: Lessons from the 2009 Victorian Bushfires. Forensic Sci Int. 2011; 205(1-3): 36–39.
  18. Noudel R, Jovenin N, Eap C, et al. Incidence of basioccipital hypoplasia in Chiari malformation type I: comparative morphometric study of the posterior cranial fossa. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2009; 111(5): 1046–1052.
  19. Peckmann TR, Orr K, Meek S, et al. Sex determination from the talus in a contemporary Greek population using discriminant function analysis. J Forensic Leg Med. 2015; 33: 14–19.
  20. Peckmann TR, Orr K, Meek S, et al. Sex determination from the calcaneus in a 20th century Greek population using discriminant function analysis. Sci Justice. 2015; 55(6): 377–382.
  21. Petju M, Suteerayongprasert A, Thongpud R, et al. Importance of dental records for victim identification following the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster in Thailand. Public Health. 2007; 121(4): 251–257.
  22. Purkait R. Triangle identified at the proximal end of femur: a new sex determinant. Forensic Sci Int. 2005; 147(2-3): 135–139.
  23. Raghavendra Babu YP, Kanchan T, Attiku Y, et al. Sex estimation from foramen magnum dimensions in an Indian population. J Forensic Leg Med. 2012; 19(3): 162–167.
  24. Tambawala SS, Karjodkar FR, Sansare K, et al. Sexual dimorphism of foramen magnum using cone beam computed tomography. J Forensic Leg Med. 2016; 44: 29–34.
  25. Torimitsu S, Makino Y, Saitoh H, et al. Morphometric analysis of sex differences in contemporary Japanese pelves using multidetector computed tomography. Forensic Sci Int. 2015; 257: 530.e1–530.e7.
  26. Ulutabanca H, Acer N, Küçük A, et al. Chiari type I malformation with high foramen magnum anomaly. Folia Morphol. 2015; 74(3): 402–406.
  27. Uthman AT, Al-Rawi NH, Al-Timimi JF. Evaluation of foramen magnum in gender determination using helical CT scanning. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2012; 41(3): 197–202.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl