open access

Vol 76, No 4 (2017)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-03-29
Submitted: 2016-11-30
Accepted: 2017-03-09
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Anatomical variations of testicular artery: a review

I. Kayalvizhi, R. K. Narayan, P. Kumar
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0035
·
Pubmed: 28394009
·
Folia Morphol 2017;76(4):541-550.

open access

Vol 76, No 4 (2017)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-03-29
Submitted: 2016-11-30
Accepted: 2017-03-09

Abstract

The testicular arteries (TAs) also known as internal spermatic arteries are long and slender arteries usually arising from the anterolateral aspect of the abdominal aorta, 2.5 cm to 5 cm caudal to the renal arteries. The variation in TAs may be found with respect to their origin, number or course. They can originate from the abdominal aorta itself at an abnormal level. If not arising from abdominal aorta the TA variants may arise from renal artery, suprarenal artery or any one of the lumbar arteries. Rarely it can arise from common or internal iliac artery, or from the superior epigastric artery. The most common variation with respect to origin of TA was found in association with renal vessels. In regard to their number, double TA was found to be most common and with respect to course most common variation was arched TA over ipsilateral renal vein. The arched TA at times on right side had a retrocaval course. Occurrence of TA variants is explained with embryology and the knowledge of its clinical significance is essential for future surgeons for designing vascular surgeries. Four studies had attempted to classify TA variants regarding their origin, number and course but they could not accommodate recently found TA variants. This led to our new proposed classification.

Abstract

The testicular arteries (TAs) also known as internal spermatic arteries are long and slender arteries usually arising from the anterolateral aspect of the abdominal aorta, 2.5 cm to 5 cm caudal to the renal arteries. The variation in TAs may be found with respect to their origin, number or course. They can originate from the abdominal aorta itself at an abnormal level. If not arising from abdominal aorta the TA variants may arise from renal artery, suprarenal artery or any one of the lumbar arteries. Rarely it can arise from common or internal iliac artery, or from the superior epigastric artery. The most common variation with respect to origin of TA was found in association with renal vessels. In regard to their number, double TA was found to be most common and with respect to course most common variation was arched TA over ipsilateral renal vein. The arched TA at times on right side had a retrocaval course. Occurrence of TA variants is explained with embryology and the knowledge of its clinical significance is essential for future surgeons for designing vascular surgeries. Four studies had attempted to classify TA variants regarding their origin, number and course but they could not accommodate recently found TA variants. This led to our new proposed classification.

Get Citation

Keywords

testicular artery, testicular artery variants, accessory testicular artery, arched testicular artery, retrocaval testicular artery

About this article
Title

Anatomical variations of testicular artery: a review

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 76, No 4 (2017)

Pages

541-550

Published online

2017-03-29

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2017.0035

Pubmed

28394009

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2017;76(4):541-550.

Keywords

testicular artery
testicular artery variants
accessory testicular artery
arched testicular artery
retrocaval testicular artery

Authors

I. Kayalvizhi
R. K. Narayan
P. Kumar

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