open access

Vol 76, No 3 (2017)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-03-02
Submitted: 2016-12-02
Accepted: 2017-02-06
Get Citation

Incidence of variations in human cadaveric renal vessels

S. S. Hassan, E. A. El-Shaarawy, J. C. Johnson, M. F. Youakim, R. Ettarh
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0020
·
Pubmed: 28281721
·
Folia Morphol 2017;76(3):394-407.

open access

Vol 76, No 3 (2017)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-03-02
Submitted: 2016-12-02
Accepted: 2017-02-06

Abstract

Background: Awareness of discrepancies of renal vasculature is crucial for some medical procedures. The present study investigated origin and course of aberrant and accessory renal vessels and any associated variations.

Materials and methods: Renal blood vessels of 63 cadavers were examined. Number of renal veins and arteries, arrangement, location where the vasculature attached to the kidneys, and presence of variations were recorded. Incidence of renal vasculature variations was determined, and associations were tested with age at death, sex, and cause of death and whether variations were more common on a specific side.

Results: Variations were found in 7 (11%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5–22%) cadavers. For renal veins, double, triple, and quadruple veins unilaterally (5; 8%) and veins that drained the superior pole (1; 2%) or inferior pole only (5; 8%) were found. For renal arteries, double and triple arteries unilaterally (3; 5%) and arteries attached to the superior pole only (1; 2%) or inferior pole only (2; 3%) were found. Other variations (polycystic kidney, variations in the common iliac or gonadal veins) were observed. Only renal failure as a cause of death was different between those with or without variations (4/7 [57%] vs. 1/56 [2%]; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The present study found many variations in renal vasculature. Awareness of such variations may be useful for physicians concerned with this region.

Abstract

Background: Awareness of discrepancies of renal vasculature is crucial for some medical procedures. The present study investigated origin and course of aberrant and accessory renal vessels and any associated variations.

Materials and methods: Renal blood vessels of 63 cadavers were examined. Number of renal veins and arteries, arrangement, location where the vasculature attached to the kidneys, and presence of variations were recorded. Incidence of renal vasculature variations was determined, and associations were tested with age at death, sex, and cause of death and whether variations were more common on a specific side.

Results: Variations were found in 7 (11%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5–22%) cadavers. For renal veins, double, triple, and quadruple veins unilaterally (5; 8%) and veins that drained the superior pole (1; 2%) or inferior pole only (5; 8%) were found. For renal arteries, double and triple arteries unilaterally (3; 5%) and arteries attached to the superior pole only (1; 2%) or inferior pole only (2; 3%) were found. Other variations (polycystic kidney, variations in the common iliac or gonadal veins) were observed. Only renal failure as a cause of death was different between those with or without variations (4/7 [57%] vs. 1/56 [2%]; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The present study found many variations in renal vasculature. Awareness of such variations may be useful for physicians concerned with this region.

Get Citation

Keywords

renal vessels, variations, accessory renal artery

About this article
Title

Incidence of variations in human cadaveric renal vessels

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 76, No 3 (2017)

Pages

394-407

Published online

2017-03-02

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2017.0020

Pubmed

28281721

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2017;76(3):394-407.

Keywords

renal vessels
variations
accessory renal artery

Authors

S. S. Hassan
E. A. El-Shaarawy
J. C. Johnson
M. F. Youakim
R. Ettarh

References (35)
  1. Asala S, Chaudhary SC, Masumbuko-Kahamba N, et al. Anatomical variations in the human testicular blood vessels. Ann Anat. 2001; 183(6): 545–549.
  2. Baptista-Silva J, Veríssimo M, Castro M, et al. Anatomical study of the renal veins observed during 342 living-donor nephrectomies. Sao Paulo Medical Journal. 1997; 115(3): 1456–1459.
  3. Bayramoglu A, Demiryurek D, Erbil KM. Bilateral additional renal arteries and an additional right renal vein associated with unrotated kidneys. Saudi Med J. 2003; 24(5): 535–537.
  4. Bergman RA, Thompson SA, Afifi AK, Saadeh FA. ompendium of Human Anatomic Variation. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore 1988: Baltimore.
  5. Budhiraja V, Rastogi R, Asthana AK. Variant origin of superior polar artery and unusual hilar branching pattern of renal artery with clinical correlation. Folia Morphol. 2011; 70(1): 24–28.
  6. Chuang VP, Mena CE, Hoskins PA, et al. Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava. Review of embryogenesis and presentation of a simplified classification. Br J Radiol. 1974; 47(556): 206–213.
  7. Ciçekcibaşi AE, Ziylan T, Salbacak A, et al. An investigation of the origin, location and variations of the renal arteries in human fetuses and their clinical relevance. Ann Anat. 2005; 187(4): 421–427.
  8. Fernandes R, Conte F, Favorito LA, et al. Triple Right Renal Vein: An Uncommon Variation. Int J Morphol. 2005; 23(3): 231–233.
  9. Gillot C. The left renal vein: anatomical study, angiographic aspects and surgical approach. Anat Clin. 1978; 1: 135–156.
  10. Gupta V, Kotgirwar S, Trivedi R, et al. Bilateral variations in renal vasculature. Int J Anat Var. 2010; 3: 53–55.
  11. Harrison LH, Flye MW, Seigler HF. Incidence of anatomical variants in renal vasculature in the presence of normal renal function. Ann Surg. 1978; 188(1): 83–89.
  12. Janschek ECS, Rothe AU, Hölzenbein TJ, et al. Anatomic basis of right renal vein extension for cadaveric kidney transplantation. Urology. 2004; 63(4): 660–664.
  13. Kaneko N, Kobayashi Y, Okada Y, et al. Anatomic variations of the renal vessels pertinent to transperitoneal vascular control in the management of trauma. Surgery. 2008; 143(5): 616–622.
  14. Malcic-Gürbüz J, Akalin A, Gümüşcü B, et al. Clinical implications of concomitant variations of the testicular, suprarenal and renal veins: a case report. Ann Anat. 2002; 184(1): 35–39.
  15. Merklin R, Mitchels NA. The variant renal and suprarenal blood supply with data on the inferior phrenic, ureteral and gonadal arteries. J Int Coll Surg. 1958; 29: 41–76.
  16. Mishra GP, Bhatnagar S, Singh B. Unilateral triple renal veins and bilateral double renal arteries: a unique case report. Int J Anat Res. 2014; 2: 239–241.
  17. Moore KL, Persaud TVN. The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, 8th Ed. Saunders, Philadelphia 2007.
  18. Nayak BS. Multiple variations of the right renal vessels. Singapore Med J. 2008; 49(6): e153–e155.
  19. Nayak SB, Sirasanagandla SR, Shetty SD, et al. Multiple vascular variations at the vicinity of the left kidney. Anat Sci Int. 2013; 88(4): 230–233.
  20. Ozkan U, Oğuzkurt L, Tercan F, et al. Renal artery origins and variations: angiographic evaluation of 855 consecutive patients. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2006; 12(4): 183–186.
  21. Petru B, Elena S, Dan I, et al. The morphology and the surgical importance of the gonadal arteries originating from the renal artery. Surg Radiol Anat. 2007; 29(5): 367–371.
  22. Saldarriaga B, Pinto S, Ballesteros L. Morphological expression of the renal artery: a direct anatomical study in a colombian half-caste population. Int J Morphol. 2008; 26(1): 31–38.
  23. Sampaio F, Aragão A. Anatomical relationship between the renal venous arrangement and the kidney collecting system. J Urol. 1990; 144(5): 1089–1093.
  24. Satyapal KS. Classification of the drainage patterns of the renal veins. J Anat. 1995; 186 ( Pt 2): 329–333.
  25. Satyapal KS, Haffejee AA, Singh B, et al. Additional renal arteries: incidence and morphometry. Surg Radiol Anat. 2001; 23(1): 33–38.
  26. Satyapal KS, Kalideen JM, Haffejee AA, et al. Left renal vein variations. Surg Radiol Anat. 1999; 21(1): 77–81.
  27. Senecail B, Bobeuf J, Forlodou P, et al. Two rare anomalies of the left renal vein. Surg Radiol Anat. 2003; 25(5-6): 465–467.
  28. Smithuis TH. The problem of renal segmentation in connection with the modes of ramification of the renal artery and the renal vein. Arch Chir Neerl. 1956; 8(3): 227–241.
  29. Standring S. Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, 40th Ed. Churchil Livingstone, Spain 2008.
  30. Tank PW, P W. Grant’s Dissector, 15th Ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia 2012.
  31. Tanyeli E, Uzel M, Soyluoğlu AI. Complex renal vascular variation: a case report. Ann Anat. 2006; 188(5): 455–458.
  32. Uzmansel D, Ozturk NC, Kara A, et al. A rare combination of vascular variations of both kidneys. Surg Radiol Anat. 2014; 36(2): 195–198.
  33. Vatsala AR, Ajay KT, Mavishettar GF, et al. A study on branching pattern of renal arteries. Int J Anat Res. 2014; 2: 270–272.
  34. Yi SQ, Ueno Y, Naito M, et al. The three most common variations of the left renal vein: a review and meta-analysis. Surg Radiol Anat. 2012; 34(9): 799–804.
  35. Zhu J, Zhang L, Yang Z, et al. Classification of the renal vein variations: a study with multidetector computed tomography. Surg Radiol Anat. 2015; 37(6): 667–675.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl