open access

Vol 76, No 3 (2017)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-02-10
Submitted: 2016-08-12
Accepted: 2016-12-29
Get Citation

Diversity among posterior thalamoperforating branches originated from P1 segment: systematic review

C. Grochowski, R. Maciejewski
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0012
·
Pubmed: 28198523
·
Folia Morphol 2017;76(3):335-339.

open access

Vol 76, No 3 (2017)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-02-10
Submitted: 2016-08-12
Accepted: 2016-12-29

Abstract

Background: The P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) begins at the termination of the basilar artery and ends at the origin of posterior commu­nicating artery, within the interpeduncular cistern. Perforating branches arising from this segment are called posterior thalamoperforating arteries (TPAs) and the main and biggest artery among those is called TPA. Perforating branches are a crucial component of cerebrovascular system supplying the posterior part of the thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, perforated substance, posterior part of internal capsule and the nucleus of III and IV cranial nerve. It is very important for neurosurgeon to know the anatomy of perforating branches because of their susceptibility to injury. The aim of this study is to determine the morphometry of posterior TPAs and allow a better understanding of their bran­ching patterns and relation to basilar artery.

Materials and methods: An extensive search was undertaken in order to identify published literature related to the posterior cerebral circulation system and the anatomy of posterior TPAs using key words. Medline, Embase, Ovid and Google Scholar databases were searched for publications dated from 1970 until July 2016. We collected and analysed all the data describing the mean number of branches per P1 segment, range of branches, number of analysed PCA, largest diameter of TPA, mean diameter of TPA and average distance from the basilar artery bifurcation.

Results: Thirteen cadaver studies were analysed and the data was extracted. We focused on the mean number of branches arising from P1 segment, perforators range, mean diameter of perforating branches, largest diameter of perforating branches.

Conclusions: Mean number of branches per hemisphere was 2.91 (min. 1.51, max. 4.1). In more than half of analysed studies, authors did not find any pre­sence of posterior TPAs. Mean diameter of those perforators was 0.51 mm (min. 0.125 mm, max. 0.8 mm). Average distance from basilar artery bifurcation was 2.29 mm (min. 1.93 mm, max. 2.75 mm). There were many branching patterns presented by different authors.

Abstract

Background: The P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) begins at the termination of the basilar artery and ends at the origin of posterior commu­nicating artery, within the interpeduncular cistern. Perforating branches arising from this segment are called posterior thalamoperforating arteries (TPAs) and the main and biggest artery among those is called TPA. Perforating branches are a crucial component of cerebrovascular system supplying the posterior part of the thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, perforated substance, posterior part of internal capsule and the nucleus of III and IV cranial nerve. It is very important for neurosurgeon to know the anatomy of perforating branches because of their susceptibility to injury. The aim of this study is to determine the morphometry of posterior TPAs and allow a better understanding of their bran­ching patterns and relation to basilar artery.

Materials and methods: An extensive search was undertaken in order to identify published literature related to the posterior cerebral circulation system and the anatomy of posterior TPAs using key words. Medline, Embase, Ovid and Google Scholar databases were searched for publications dated from 1970 until July 2016. We collected and analysed all the data describing the mean number of branches per P1 segment, range of branches, number of analysed PCA, largest diameter of TPA, mean diameter of TPA and average distance from the basilar artery bifurcation.

Results: Thirteen cadaver studies were analysed and the data was extracted. We focused on the mean number of branches arising from P1 segment, perforators range, mean diameter of perforating branches, largest diameter of perforating branches.

Conclusions: Mean number of branches per hemisphere was 2.91 (min. 1.51, max. 4.1). In more than half of analysed studies, authors did not find any pre­sence of posterior TPAs. Mean diameter of those perforators was 0.51 mm (min. 0.125 mm, max. 0.8 mm). Average distance from basilar artery bifurcation was 2.29 mm (min. 1.93 mm, max. 2.75 mm). There were many branching patterns presented by different authors.

Get Citation

Keywords

thalamoperforating artery, posterior cerebral artery, P1 segment, perforating branches

About this article
Title

Diversity among posterior thalamoperforating branches originated from P1 segment: systematic review

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 76, No 3 (2017)

Pages

335-339

Published online

2017-02-10

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2017.0012

Pubmed

28198523

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2017;76(3):335-339.

Keywords

thalamoperforating artery
posterior cerebral artery
P1 segment
perforating branches

Authors

C. Grochowski
R. Maciejewski

References (27)
  1. Bonnaud I, Salama J. [An ischemic syndrome of the oculumotor nucleus: associated clinical and anatomical variations on a theme]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2003; 159(8-9): 781–785.
  2. Caruso G, Vincentelli F, Giudicelli G, et al. Perforating branches of the basilar bifurcation. J Neurosurg. 1990; 73(2): 259–265.
  3. Cosson A, Tatu L, Vuillier F, et al. Arterial vascularization of the human thalamus: extra-parenchymal arterial groups. Surg Radiol Anat. 2003; 25(5-6): 408–415.
  4. Duret M. Recherches anatomiques sur la circulation de l’encéphale. Arch Phys Norm Path. 1874; 1: 60–91.
  5. Grand W, Hopkins LN. The microsurgical anatomy of the basilar artery bifurcation. Neurosurgery. 1977; 1(2): 128–131.
  6. Hara K, Fuijino Y. The thalamoperforating arteries. Acta Radiol Diagn. 1966; 5: 192–200.
  7. Heubner O. Zur topographie der Ernährungsgabiete der einzelnen 40 hirnarterien. Zbl Med Wiss. 1872; 52: 817–821.
  8. Kaya AH, Dagcinar A, Ulu MO, et al. The perforating branches of the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. J Clin Neurosci. 2010; 17(1): 80–84.
  9. Krayenbühl HA, Yasargil MG. Cerebral Angiography. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: J B, Lippincott 1968.
  10. Lang J, Brunner FX. Über die rami centrales der aa. Cerebri anterior and media. Gegenbaurs Morph Jb. 1978; 124: 364.
  11. Lazorthes G, Gouhze A, Salamon G. Vaseularization et Circulation Cerebrales. Masson, Paris 1976.
  12. Lazorthes G, Salamon G. The arteries of the thalamus: an anatomical and radiological study. J Neurosurg. 1971; 34(1): 23–26.
  13. Marinković S, Gibo H, Milisavljević M. The surgical anatomy of the relationships between the perforating and the leptomeningeal arteries. Neurosurgery. 1996; 39(1): 72–83.
  14. Marinković S, Milisavljević M, Kovacević M. Interpeduncular perforating branches of the posterior cerebral artery. Microsurgical anatomy of their extracerebral and intracerebral segments. Surg Neurol. 1986; 26(4): 349–359.
  15. Pai BS, Varma RG, Kulkarni RN, et al. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation. Neurol India. 2007; 55(1): 31–41.
  16. Park SQ, Bae HG, Yoon SM, et al. Morphological characteristics of the thalamoperforating arteries. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2010; 47(1): 36–41.
  17. Párraga RG, Ribas GC, Andrade SE, et al. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior cerebral artery in three-dimensional images. World Neurosurg. 2011; 75(2): 233–257.
  18. Pedroza A, Dujovny M, Ausman JI, et al. Microvascular anatomy of the interpeduncular fossa. J Neurosurg. 1986; 64(3): 484–493.
  19. Percheron G. Etude Anatnmique du Thalamus de l'Homme Adulte et de sa Vaseularisation ArterieUe. These de Medicine, Paris 1966.
  20. Percheron G. Les artères du thalamus humain. II. Artères et territoires thalamiques paramédians de l'artère basilaire communicante. Rev Neurol. 1976; 132: 309–324.
  21. Rassi NA, Antunes ÁCM, Braga FM. The posterior thalamoperforating artery (the main perforating trunk from P1). Microsurgical study. Jornal Brasileiro de Neurocirurgia, São Paulo, v.3, 1992: 103–107.
  22. Rhoton Jr A. The Supratentorial Arteries. Neurosurgery. 2002; 51(suppl 4): S53–S120.
  23. Saeki N, Rhoton AL. Microsurgical anatomy of the upper basilar artery and the posterior circle of Willis. J Neurosurg. 1977; 46(5): 563–578.
  24. Salamon G. Atlas de la Vaseularisation Arterielle du Cerveau Chez I'Homme. Sandoz, Paris 1971.
  25. Uz A. Variations in the origin of the thalamoperforating arteries. J Clin Neurosci. 2007; 14(2): 134–137.
  26. Westberg G. Arteries of the basal ganglia. Acta Radiol Diagn (Stockh). 1966; 5: 581–596.
  27. Zeal AA, Rhoton AL. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior cerebral artery. J Neurosurg. 1978; 48(4): 534–559.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl