open access

Vol 75, No 4 (2016)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2016-04-08
Submitted: 2016-02-03
Accepted: 2016-03-04
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Positional changes in tendon insertions from bone to fascia: development of the pes anserinus and semimembranosus muscle insertion in human foetuses

Z. W. Jin, H. Abe, Y. Jin, S. Shibata, G. Murakami, Jo. F. Rodríguez-Vázquez
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2016.0020
·
Pubmed: 27830876
·
Folia Morphol 2016;75(4):503-511.

open access

Vol 75, No 4 (2016)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2016-04-08
Submitted: 2016-02-03
Accepted: 2016-03-04

Abstract

Development of a long muscle belly in foetal extremities generally requires a definite bony insertion of the long tendon. However, in adults, the pes anserinus and the semimembranosus tendon (SMT) are inserted into fasciae. Development of fascial insertions in foetuses was investigated by examining serial histological sections obtained from 7 foetuses at 8–9 weeks and 8 foetuses at 14–16 weeks. The presence of matrix substances and macrophages was also examined by immunohistochemistry. At 8 weeks, the tendons of the semitendinosus, gracilis, sartorius and semimembranosus muscles were straight and inserted into the initial shaft-like proximal end of the tibia on the proximal side of the popliteus muscle. At 9 weeks, however, the medially extending popliteus muscle appeared to push the pes anserinus tendons superficially, with a loss of cartilage insertions. The SMT obtained an attachment to the popliteus muscle. At 14–16 weeks, the SMT divided into thick and thin bundles: the former contained abundant macrophages and inserted into the tenascin-positive perichondrium of the enlarged proximal tibia, while the later without macrophages ended at the joint capsule. The pes anserinus tendons, negative for both versican and tenascin-c, took highly tortuous courses toward the fascia cruris. Because the medial extension of the popliteus muscle was associated with the enlargement of the proximal tibia, the topographical relationship of the popliteus muscle with these 4 tendons changed drastically, resulting in a loss of cartilage insertion of the pes anserinus tendons as well as the division and reconstruction of the SMT.

Abstract

Development of a long muscle belly in foetal extremities generally requires a definite bony insertion of the long tendon. However, in adults, the pes anserinus and the semimembranosus tendon (SMT) are inserted into fasciae. Development of fascial insertions in foetuses was investigated by examining serial histological sections obtained from 7 foetuses at 8–9 weeks and 8 foetuses at 14–16 weeks. The presence of matrix substances and macrophages was also examined by immunohistochemistry. At 8 weeks, the tendons of the semitendinosus, gracilis, sartorius and semimembranosus muscles were straight and inserted into the initial shaft-like proximal end of the tibia on the proximal side of the popliteus muscle. At 9 weeks, however, the medially extending popliteus muscle appeared to push the pes anserinus tendons superficially, with a loss of cartilage insertions. The SMT obtained an attachment to the popliteus muscle. At 14–16 weeks, the SMT divided into thick and thin bundles: the former contained abundant macrophages and inserted into the tenascin-positive perichondrium of the enlarged proximal tibia, while the later without macrophages ended at the joint capsule. The pes anserinus tendons, negative for both versican and tenascin-c, took highly tortuous courses toward the fascia cruris. Because the medial extension of the popliteus muscle was associated with the enlargement of the proximal tibia, the topographical relationship of the popliteus muscle with these 4 tendons changed drastically, resulting in a loss of cartilage insertion of the pes anserinus tendons as well as the division and reconstruction of the SMT.

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Keywords

pes anserinus, sartorius muscle, gracilis muscle, semimembranosus tendon, popliteus muscle, human foetuses

About this article
Title

Positional changes in tendon insertions from bone to fascia: development of the pes anserinus and semimembranosus muscle insertion in human foetuses

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 75, No 4 (2016)

Pages

503-511

Published online

2016-04-08

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2016.0020

Pubmed

27830876

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2016;75(4):503-511.

Keywords

pes anserinus
sartorius muscle
gracilis muscle
semimembranosus tendon
popliteus muscle
human foetuses

Authors

Z. W. Jin
H. Abe
Y. Jin
S. Shibata
G. Murakami
Jo. F. Rodríguez-Vázquez

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