open access

Vol 76, No 2 (2017)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2016-09-28
Submitted: 2014-07-09
Accepted: 2014-11-20
Get Citation

An anatomical investigation of the carotid canal

N. Naidoo, L. Lazarus, N. O. Ajayi, K. S. Satyapal
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2016.0060
·
Pubmed: 27714731
·
Folia Morphol 2017;76(2):289-294.

open access

Vol 76, No 2 (2017)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2016-09-28
Submitted: 2014-07-09
Accepted: 2014-11-20

Abstract

Background: The carotid canal (CC) located in the petrous temporal bone transmits the internal carotid artery, internal carotid venous plexus and sympathetic nerve plexus from the neck into the cranial cavity. It is an accessible passage into the cranial cavity and is considered an important anatomical landmark for neurosurgeons. The aim of this study was to investigate the topographical, morphometric and morphological parameters of the CC.

Materials and methods: An examination of the CC and related adjacent structures in 81 dry skull specimens was performed. Distribution of sample by sex was 34 females and 47 males, and by race 77 African and 4 Caucasian. The mean age was 50 years (range: 14–100 years).

Results: The external opening of the CC was found to be round-shaped, oval-shaped and tear-drop-shaped in 28.4%, 49.4% and 22.2% of the specimens, respectively. (1) Mean diameters [mm]: (a) medio-lateral 7.52 mm and (b) antero-posterior 5.41mm. Statistically significant difference in the vertical diameter was recorded in the race groups and laterality of the samples. (2) Mean distances [mm] between: (a) medial margins of external opening of CC was 50.03 mm, (b) lateral margins of external opening of CC was 62.73 mm and (c) external openings of CC and foramen lacerum was 15.6 mm. There was a statistically significant correlation between race and location of the opening of external CC in relation to foramen lacerum (viz. postero-lateral, lateral and diagonal, and lateral).

Conclusions: The present study corroborated previous reports on the CC; however, the tear-drop shaped external CC opening was a unique finding. The knowledge of the reference measurements pertaining to the CC and its relationship to adjacent structures may postulate a suitable surgical “safe-zone” range within the CC area.

Abstract

Background: The carotid canal (CC) located in the petrous temporal bone transmits the internal carotid artery, internal carotid venous plexus and sympathetic nerve plexus from the neck into the cranial cavity. It is an accessible passage into the cranial cavity and is considered an important anatomical landmark for neurosurgeons. The aim of this study was to investigate the topographical, morphometric and morphological parameters of the CC.

Materials and methods: An examination of the CC and related adjacent structures in 81 dry skull specimens was performed. Distribution of sample by sex was 34 females and 47 males, and by race 77 African and 4 Caucasian. The mean age was 50 years (range: 14–100 years).

Results: The external opening of the CC was found to be round-shaped, oval-shaped and tear-drop-shaped in 28.4%, 49.4% and 22.2% of the specimens, respectively. (1) Mean diameters [mm]: (a) medio-lateral 7.52 mm and (b) antero-posterior 5.41mm. Statistically significant difference in the vertical diameter was recorded in the race groups and laterality of the samples. (2) Mean distances [mm] between: (a) medial margins of external opening of CC was 50.03 mm, (b) lateral margins of external opening of CC was 62.73 mm and (c) external openings of CC and foramen lacerum was 15.6 mm. There was a statistically significant correlation between race and location of the opening of external CC in relation to foramen lacerum (viz. postero-lateral, lateral and diagonal, and lateral).

Conclusions: The present study corroborated previous reports on the CC; however, the tear-drop shaped external CC opening was a unique finding. The knowledge of the reference measurements pertaining to the CC and its relationship to adjacent structures may postulate a suitable surgical “safe-zone” range within the CC area.

Get Citation

Keywords

carotid canal, morphometry, morphology, topography

About this article
Title

An anatomical investigation of the carotid canal

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 76, No 2 (2017)

Pages

289-294

Published online

2016-09-28

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2016.0060

Pubmed

27714731

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2017;76(2):289-294.

Keywords

carotid canal
morphometry
morphology
topography

Authors

N. Naidoo
L. Lazarus
N. O. Ajayi
K. S. Satyapal

References (30)
  1. Ahmed MM. A comparative study of right and left sided foramen ovale, jugular foramen and carotid canal. Karnataka. 2011: 1–11.
  2. Aoun MA, Nasr AY, Aziz AMA. Morphometric study of the carotid canal. Life Science J. 2013.; 10(3): 2559–2562.
  3. Arata W, Tomohiro O, Hidehito K, et al. Bony carotid canal hypoplasia in patients with moyamoya disease. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010; 5(6): 591–594.
  4. Berlis A, Putz R, Schumacher M. Direct and CT measurements of canals and foramina of the skull base. Br J Radiol. 1992; 65(776): 653–661.
  5. Berkoviz BK, Moxham BJ. Textbook of head and neck anatomy. Wolfe Medical Publications, London 1988.
  6. Calgüner E, Turgut HB, Gözil R, et al. Measurements of the carotid canal in skulls from Anatolia. Acta Anat (Basel). 1997; 158(2): 130–132.
  7. Chimmalgi M, Kulkarni Y, Sant SM. Sexing of Skull by New Metrical Parameters in Western India. J Anat Society of Indian. 2007; 56(1).
  8. Cicekcibasi AE, Murshed KA, Ziylan T, et al. A morphometric evaluation of some important bony landmarks on the skull base related to sexes. Turkish J Medical Science. 2004; 34: 37–42.
  9. Faiz O, Moffat D. Anatomy at a Glance 2002. Blackwell Science Ltd, United Kongdom 2002.
  10. Farhat W, Ahdab R, Hosseini H. Congenital agenesis of internal carotid artery with ipsilateral Horner presenting as focal neurological symptoms. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2011; 7: 37–40.
  11. Hassanein E, Geneidi E, Taha M. The Cochlear-Carotid Interval: Preoperative Assessment for Cochlear Implant. Mediterrean J Otology. 2008; 4: 19–23.
  12. Lang J, Schafhauser O, Hoffmann S. Uber die postnatale Entwicklung der transbasalen Schadelpoforten: Canalis caroticus, Foramen jugulare, Canalis hypoglossalis, Canalis condylaris und Foramen magnum. Anat Anz. 1983; 153(4): 315–357.
  13. Lang J, Schrieber T. Uber form undlage des Foramen jugulare (Fossa jugularis), des Canalis caroticus und des Foramen stylomastoideum sowie deren postnatale Lagaveranderungen. Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde. 1983; 31: 80–87.
  14. Mohr H, Nazer MB, Campos D. Calcification of the left carotid artery and its implications: a case report in human. J Morphol Sci. 2010; 27(1): 32–34.
  15. Moore KL, Dalley AF, Agur AMR. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 6th Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkin, USA 2010: 971–974.
  16. Moss ML, Greenberg SN. Functional cranial analysis of the human maxillary bone: I, Basal bone. Angle Orthod. 1967; 37(3): 151–164, doi: 10.1043/0003-3219(1967)037<0151:FCAOTH>2.0.CO;2.
  17. Motoshima S, Noguchi T, Kawashima M, et al. Narrowed petrous carotid canal detection for the early diagnosis of moyamoya disease. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 2012; 103(10): 206–214.
  18. Netter FH. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 5th Ed. Saunders Elsevier, USA 2011.
  19. Ramteerthakar RN, Umarji BN. A study of carotid canals for identification of sex. Medico-Legal Update. 2012; 12(1): 110–111.
  20. Resnick DK, Subach BR, Marion DW. The significance of carotid canal involvement in basilar cranial fracture. Neurosurgery. 1997; 40(6): 1177–1181.
  21. Russo P, Smith R. Asymmetry of human skull base during growth. Int J Morphol. 2011; 29(3): 1028–1032.
  22. Rutz J. Masse und Verlaufe der SchadelkanaJe: Canalis caroticus, Canalis condylaris, Foramen mastoideum, ‘Emissarium occipitale’ sowie Form und Grosse der Lingula sphenoidalis. Med Diss, Wiirzburg 1975.
  23. Somesh MS, Sridevi HB, Murlimanju BV, et al. Morphological and morphometric study of carotid canal in Indian population. Int J Biomechanical Res. 2014; 5(7): 455–460.
  24. Standring S. Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. Elsevier Ltd, Spain 2008: 830–845.
  25. Swartz JD, Bazarnic M, Naidich TP, et al. Aberrant internal carotid artery lying within the middle ear. Neuroradiology. 1985; 27(4): 322–326.
  26. Teufel J. Einbau der Arteria carotis interna in den Canalis caroticus unter Berucksichtigung des transversalen Venenabflusses. Morphologisches Jahrbuch. 1964; 106: 188–274.
  27. Vinkka H, Koski K. Variability of the craniofacial skeleton. II. Comparison between two age groups. Am J Orthod. 1975; 67(1): 34–43.
  28. Wysocki J. Topographical anatomy and morphometry of the temporal bone of the macaque. Folia Morphol. 2009; 68(1): 13–22.
  29. Yamamoto M, Jimbo M, Ide M. X-ray CT study of the carotid canal. International Atomic Energy Agency. 1987; 9(6): 659–664.
  30. York G, Barboriak D, Petrella J, et al. Association of internal carotid artery injury with carotid canal fractures in patients with head trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005; 184(5): 1672–1678.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl