open access

Vol 53, No 4 (2015)
Original paper
Submitted: 2015-07-09
Accepted: 2015-12-17
Published online: 2016-01-07
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Effects of rosmarinic acid on cognitive and biochemical alterations in ovariectomized rats treated with D-galactose

Deniz Kantar Gok, Nihal Ozturk, Hakan Er, Mutay Aslan, Necdet Demir, Narin Derin, Aysel Agar, Piraye Yargicoglu
DOI: 10.5603/fhc.a2015.0034
·
Pubmed: 26714446
·
Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2015;53(4):283-293.

open access

Vol 53, No 4 (2015)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Submitted: 2015-07-09
Accepted: 2015-12-17
Published online: 2016-01-07

Abstract

Introduction. Animal models designed to mimic certain features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can help us to in­crease our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of disease. Previous studies have revealed that long-term D-galactose injection combined with ovariectomy results in pathophysiologic alterations associated with AD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) administration on pathological changes associated with ovariectomy and D-galactose injection, which serve as a two-insult model for AD.

Material and methods. One hundred female Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups: control (C), Sham (Sh), rosmarinic acid treated (R), ovariectomized rats treated with D-galactose (OD), ovariectomized rats treated with D-galactose and rosmarinic acid (ODR) groups. D-galactose (80 mg/kg/day) was administered by i.p. injection and RA (50 mg/kg/day) was given via gavage for 60 days. Open field and Y-maze tests were used to assess locomotor activity and short-term spatial memory, respectively. Biochemical and histopathological analyses of the brain tissue were performed.

Results. Open field testing showed that the locomotor activity and exploratory behavior of rats were prominent­ly impaired in the OD group as compared to the other studied groups. Similarly, Y-maze test results revealed a decrease of short-term spatial memory in the OD rats. A concomitant treatment with RA significantly restored altered locomotor activity and cognitive functions in the ODR group. Lipid peroxidation levels, cyclooxygen­ase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 levels in the brain tissue were higher in the OD group and RA treatment inhibited these changes. AD-like histopathological alterations and amyloid b peptide (Ab) depositions were observed in the OD group. Normal cell structure and lower Ab depositions were observed in the ODR group compared with the OD group.

Conclusions. RA could have the potential to prevent some psychological and biochemical alterations of brain tissue found in a rat model of AD probably by attenuating lipid peroxidation and inflammatory response.

Abstract

Introduction. Animal models designed to mimic certain features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can help us to in­crease our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of disease. Previous studies have revealed that long-term D-galactose injection combined with ovariectomy results in pathophysiologic alterations associated with AD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) administration on pathological changes associated with ovariectomy and D-galactose injection, which serve as a two-insult model for AD.

Material and methods. One hundred female Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups: control (C), Sham (Sh), rosmarinic acid treated (R), ovariectomized rats treated with D-galactose (OD), ovariectomized rats treated with D-galactose and rosmarinic acid (ODR) groups. D-galactose (80 mg/kg/day) was administered by i.p. injection and RA (50 mg/kg/day) was given via gavage for 60 days. Open field and Y-maze tests were used to assess locomotor activity and short-term spatial memory, respectively. Biochemical and histopathological analyses of the brain tissue were performed.

Results. Open field testing showed that the locomotor activity and exploratory behavior of rats were prominent­ly impaired in the OD group as compared to the other studied groups. Similarly, Y-maze test results revealed a decrease of short-term spatial memory in the OD rats. A concomitant treatment with RA significantly restored altered locomotor activity and cognitive functions in the ODR group. Lipid peroxidation levels, cyclooxygen­ase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 levels in the brain tissue were higher in the OD group and RA treatment inhibited these changes. AD-like histopathological alterations and amyloid b peptide (Ab) depositions were observed in the OD group. Normal cell structure and lower Ab depositions were observed in the ODR group compared with the OD group.

Conclusions. RA could have the potential to prevent some psychological and biochemical alterations of brain tissue found in a rat model of AD probably by attenuating lipid peroxidation and inflammatory response.

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Keywords

Alzheimer’s disease; rat; estrogen deficiency; amyloid beta; rosmarinic acid; lipid peroxidation; COX-2; PGE2; short-term memory; hippocampus; electron microscopy; IHC

About this article
Title

Effects of rosmarinic acid on cognitive and biochemical alterations in ovariectomized rats treated with D-galactose

Journal

Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica

Issue

Vol 53, No 4 (2015)

Article type

Original paper

Pages

283-293

Published online

2016-01-07

DOI

10.5603/fhc.a2015.0034

Pubmed

26714446

Bibliographic record

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2015;53(4):283-293.

Keywords

Alzheimer’s disease
rat
estrogen deficiency
amyloid beta
rosmarinic acid
lipid peroxidation
COX-2
PGE2
short-term memory
hippocampus
electron microscopy
IHC

Authors

Deniz Kantar Gok
Nihal Ozturk
Hakan Er
Mutay Aslan
Necdet Demir
Narin Derin
Aysel Agar
Piraye Yargicoglu

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