open access

Vol 53, No 3 (2015)
Original paper
Submitted: 2015-03-30
Accepted: 2015-08-25
Published online: 2015-10-08
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The risk of neoplasm associated with dysgenetic testes in prepubertal and pubertal/adult patients

Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer, Maria Szarras-Czapnik, Jan K. Wolski, Elzbieta Oszukowska, Maciej Hilczer, Lucjusz Jakubowski, Renata Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Katarzyna Marchlewska, Eliza Filipiak, Bogdan Kaluzewski, Malgorzata Baka-Ostrowska, Jerzy Niedzielski, Krzysztof Kula
DOI: 10.5603/FHC.a2015.0021
·
Pubmed: 26314751
·
Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2015;53(3):218-226.

open access

Vol 53, No 3 (2015)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Submitted: 2015-03-30
Accepted: 2015-08-25
Published online: 2015-10-08

Abstract

Introduction. In patients with Y-chromosome in the karyotype, partial gonadal dysgenesis and disorders of male reproductive sex organs development are usually resected in childhood because of the high risk of germ cell tumours (GCT). In patients with Y-chromosome, complete gonadal dysgenesis and female genitalia gonadectomy is performed markedly later. However, due to the relatively low number of adult patients with preserved dysgenetic gonads, the true risk of neoplasm is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of neoplasia in dysgenetic gonads of children and adults with Y-chromosome in a retrospective study.

Material and methods. A review of medical documentation of 94 patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), Y-chromosome and gonadal dysgenesis (GD), aged 1.2–32 years (47 prepubertal, 1.2–10 years; 47 pubertal/adult, 13–32 years), was conducted. Serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were determined. Bilateral gonadectomy was performed in 73.4% of patients, and unilateral gonadectomy with biopsy of the contralateral gonad in 26.4%. All gonadal tissues were subjected to immunohistochemical evaluation with antibodies against PLAP and OCT3/4 (markers of malignant germ cells, but also foetal multipotent germ cells), while gonads of prepubertal patients were examined by c-KIT, as well.

Results. Streak gonads were identified on both sides (complete GD) in 30.8%, a streak gonad on one side and an underdeveloped testis on the other (asymmetric GD) in 38.3%, and underdeveloped testicular structure on both sides (partial GD) in 30.8% of cases. Germ cell neoplasia was found in 53.2% of patients (51.1% in children, 55.3% in pubertal/adults). Invasive GCT were identified in 11.7% of cases, of which 90.9% were in pubertal/adult patients. Other neoplastic lesions included gonadoblastoma (16% prevalence) and testicular carcinoma in situ (25.5%). In younger patients FSH serum levels were increased in 81% of cases (mean 2.82 ± 2.18 IU/L), while LH in 58% (mean 1.82 ± 1.69 IU/L). Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism was diagnosed in most of the pubertal/ /adult patients (mean FSH 54.2 ± 23.3 IU/L, mean LH 21.7 ± 12.1 IU/L, mean testosterone 5.5 ± 4.5 nmol/L).

Conclusions. Dysgenetic gonads in patients with Y chromosome have a high risk of germ cell neoplasia (ca. 50%). If they are preserved until puberty/early adulthood, they may develop overt, invasive GCT. The gonads also have poor hormonal activity (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism) in most of the pubertal/adult patients. Each of these cases must be considered individually and a decision to remove the gonad or not should be based on the comprehensive analysis of the phenotype by a multidisciplinary team of specialists in consultation with the patient and the parents. If dysgenetic gonads are not resected in childhood, these patients need careful ongoing follow-up examination, including biopsy and histopathological evaluation. (

Abstract

Introduction. In patients with Y-chromosome in the karyotype, partial gonadal dysgenesis and disorders of male reproductive sex organs development are usually resected in childhood because of the high risk of germ cell tumours (GCT). In patients with Y-chromosome, complete gonadal dysgenesis and female genitalia gonadectomy is performed markedly later. However, due to the relatively low number of adult patients with preserved dysgenetic gonads, the true risk of neoplasm is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of neoplasia in dysgenetic gonads of children and adults with Y-chromosome in a retrospective study.

Material and methods. A review of medical documentation of 94 patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), Y-chromosome and gonadal dysgenesis (GD), aged 1.2–32 years (47 prepubertal, 1.2–10 years; 47 pubertal/adult, 13–32 years), was conducted. Serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were determined. Bilateral gonadectomy was performed in 73.4% of patients, and unilateral gonadectomy with biopsy of the contralateral gonad in 26.4%. All gonadal tissues were subjected to immunohistochemical evaluation with antibodies against PLAP and OCT3/4 (markers of malignant germ cells, but also foetal multipotent germ cells), while gonads of prepubertal patients were examined by c-KIT, as well.

Results. Streak gonads were identified on both sides (complete GD) in 30.8%, a streak gonad on one side and an underdeveloped testis on the other (asymmetric GD) in 38.3%, and underdeveloped testicular structure on both sides (partial GD) in 30.8% of cases. Germ cell neoplasia was found in 53.2% of patients (51.1% in children, 55.3% in pubertal/adults). Invasive GCT were identified in 11.7% of cases, of which 90.9% were in pubertal/adult patients. Other neoplastic lesions included gonadoblastoma (16% prevalence) and testicular carcinoma in situ (25.5%). In younger patients FSH serum levels were increased in 81% of cases (mean 2.82 ± 2.18 IU/L), while LH in 58% (mean 1.82 ± 1.69 IU/L). Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism was diagnosed in most of the pubertal/ /adult patients (mean FSH 54.2 ± 23.3 IU/L, mean LH 21.7 ± 12.1 IU/L, mean testosterone 5.5 ± 4.5 nmol/L).

Conclusions. Dysgenetic gonads in patients with Y chromosome have a high risk of germ cell neoplasia (ca. 50%). If they are preserved until puberty/early adulthood, they may develop overt, invasive GCT. The gonads also have poor hormonal activity (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism) in most of the pubertal/adult patients. Each of these cases must be considered individually and a decision to remove the gonad or not should be based on the comprehensive analysis of the phenotype by a multidisciplinary team of specialists in consultation with the patient and the parents. If dysgenetic gonads are not resected in childhood, these patients need careful ongoing follow-up examination, including biopsy and histopathological evaluation. (

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Keywords

testis; gonadal dysgenesis; testicular carcinoma in situ; gonadoblastoma; germ cell tumours; hypergonadotropic hypogonadism

About this article
Title

The risk of neoplasm associated with dysgenetic testes in prepubertal and pubertal/adult patients

Journal

Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica

Issue

Vol 53, No 3 (2015)

Article type

Original paper

Pages

218-226

Published online

2015-10-08

DOI

10.5603/FHC.a2015.0021

Pubmed

26314751

Bibliographic record

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2015;53(3):218-226.

Keywords

testis
gonadal dysgenesis
testicular carcinoma in situ
gonadoblastoma
germ cell tumours
hypergonadotropic hypogonadism

Authors

Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer
Maria Szarras-Czapnik
Jan K. Wolski
Elzbieta Oszukowska
Maciej Hilczer
Lucjusz Jakubowski
Renata Walczak-Jedrzejowska
Katarzyna Marchlewska
Eliza Filipiak
Bogdan Kaluzewski
Malgorzata Baka-Ostrowska
Jerzy Niedzielski
Krzysztof Kula

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