open access

Vol 53, No 1 (2015)
Original paper
Submitted: 2014-10-17
Accepted: 2015-02-11
Published online: 2015-04-14
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SEM-EDS and X-ray micro computed tomography studies of skeletal surface pattern and body structure in the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris collected from Goczalkowice reservoir habit (Southern Poland)

Jagna Karcz, Andrzej Woznica, Marcin Binkowski, Malgorzata Klonowska-Olejnik, Tytus Bernas, Jerzy Karczewski, Pawel Migula
DOI: 10.5603/FHC.a2015.0002
·
Pubmed: 25679287
·
Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2015;53(1):88-95.

open access

Vol 53, No 1 (2015)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Submitted: 2014-10-17
Accepted: 2015-02-11
Published online: 2015-04-14

Abstract

Introduction. Freshwater sponges are common animals of most aquatic ecosystems. They feed by filtering small particles from the water, and so are thought to be sensitive indicators of pollution. Sponges are strongly associated with the abiotic environment and are therefore used as bioindicators for monitoring of water quality in water habitats. Among the freshwater sponges, Spongilla lacustris is one of the classic models used to study evolution, gene regulation, development, physiology and structural biology in animal water systems. It is also important in diagnostic of aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to characterize and visualize three-dimensional architecture of sponge body and measure skeleton elements of S. lacustris from Goczalkowice reservoir for identification purposes.

Material and methods. The scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM- -EDS) and X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) were used to provide non-invasive visualization of the three-dimensional architecture of Spongilla lacustris body.

Results. We showed that sponge skeleton was not homogeneous in composition and comprised several forms of skeleton organization. Ectosomal skeleton occurred as spicular brushes at apices of primary fibres with cementing spongin material. Choanosomal skeletal architecture was alveolate with pauci- to multispicular primary fibres connected by paucispicular transverse fibres, made by megascleres embedded in a scanty spongin matrix both in the choanosome and at the sponge surface. In contrast, microscleres were irregularly scattered in choanosome and skeletal surface. Furthermore, SEM-EDS studies showed that the distribution of silica in megascleres and microscleres was observed along the spicules and sponge surface areas.

Conclusions. In conclusion, we showed that the combination of SEM-EDS and micro-CT microscopy techniques allowed obtaining a complete picture of the sponge spatial architecture.

Abstract

Introduction. Freshwater sponges are common animals of most aquatic ecosystems. They feed by filtering small particles from the water, and so are thought to be sensitive indicators of pollution. Sponges are strongly associated with the abiotic environment and are therefore used as bioindicators for monitoring of water quality in water habitats. Among the freshwater sponges, Spongilla lacustris is one of the classic models used to study evolution, gene regulation, development, physiology and structural biology in animal water systems. It is also important in diagnostic of aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to characterize and visualize three-dimensional architecture of sponge body and measure skeleton elements of S. lacustris from Goczalkowice reservoir for identification purposes.

Material and methods. The scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM- -EDS) and X-ray micro computed tomography (micro-CT) were used to provide non-invasive visualization of the three-dimensional architecture of Spongilla lacustris body.

Results. We showed that sponge skeleton was not homogeneous in composition and comprised several forms of skeleton organization. Ectosomal skeleton occurred as spicular brushes at apices of primary fibres with cementing spongin material. Choanosomal skeletal architecture was alveolate with pauci- to multispicular primary fibres connected by paucispicular transverse fibres, made by megascleres embedded in a scanty spongin matrix both in the choanosome and at the sponge surface. In contrast, microscleres were irregularly scattered in choanosome and skeletal surface. Furthermore, SEM-EDS studies showed that the distribution of silica in megascleres and microscleres was observed along the spicules and sponge surface areas.

Conclusions. In conclusion, we showed that the combination of SEM-EDS and micro-CT microscopy techniques allowed obtaining a complete picture of the sponge spatial architecture.

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Keywords

high-resolution scanning electron microscopy; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; X-ray micro computed tomography; sponge; skeletal architecture

About this article
Title

SEM-EDS and X-ray micro computed tomography studies of skeletal surface pattern and body structure in the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris collected from Goczalkowice reservoir habit (Southern Poland)

Journal

Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica

Issue

Vol 53, No 1 (2015)

Article type

Original paper

Pages

88-95

Published online

2015-04-14

DOI

10.5603/FHC.a2015.0002

Pubmed

25679287

Bibliographic record

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2015;53(1):88-95.

Keywords

high-resolution scanning electron microscopy
energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
X-ray micro computed tomography
sponge
skeletal architecture

Authors

Jagna Karcz
Andrzej Woznica
Marcin Binkowski
Malgorzata Klonowska-Olejnik
Tytus Bernas
Jerzy Karczewski
Pawel Migula

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