open access

Vol 52, No 1 (2014)
Original paper
Submitted: 2014-02-07
Accepted: 2014-03-27
Published online: 2014-05-07
Get Citation

Tobacco smoking alters the number of oral epithelial cells with apoptotic features

Adam Michcik, Miroslawa Cichorek, Agnieszka Daca, Piotr Chomik, Slawomir Wojcik, Anton Zawrocki, Adam Wlodarkiewicz
DOI: 10.5603/FHC.2014.0007
·
Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2014;52(1):60-68.

open access

Vol 52, No 1 (2014)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Submitted: 2014-02-07
Accepted: 2014-03-27
Published online: 2014-05-07

Abstract

Tobacco smoking is a global problem associated with the occurrence of many systemic diseases and tumors. Oral cavity tumors are common tobacco-related cancers, and of all the anatomical structures that are exposed to the effects of smoking, the oral cavity remains the least-explored area. Changes that occur in the biology of oral epithelial keratinocytes under the influence of the components of tobacco smoke often go unnoticed, if they are asymptomatic. The proper functioning of the oral epithelium is determined by the proliferation and differentiation of the cells in keratinization — the process of programmed cell death, which extends through to the mechanisms of apoptosis. Due to incomplete knowledge of the impact of tobacco smoke on the biology of keratinocytes, an evaluation of the cell cycle was conducted and the apoptosis of oral epithelial keratinocytes was analyzed. The study involved 77 patients divided into four groups according to their intensity of smoking, ranging from 0 to 27 pack-years. There were no differences in the cell count between nonsmokers and smokers in the proper cell-cycle phases. The percentage of proliferating cells in the oral epithelium is about 11%. A reduction in the number of early-apoptotic cells (caspase positive/propidium iodide negative) and an increase in the number of late-apoptotic cells (caspase positive/annexin V positive/propidium iodide positive) were observed to occur with increasing pack-years. The present study demonstrates that smoking does not affect the oral keratinocyte cell cycle, but does modify the number of cells with early and late apoptotic features. An intensification of the impact of tobacco smoke components on the biology of the oral keratinocytes is clearly noticeable at approximately 6 pack-years. This indicates that the biology of the first organ exposed to tobacco smoke — the oral epithelium — is altered by tobacco smoking. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2014, Vol. 52, No. 1, 60–68)

Abstract

Tobacco smoking is a global problem associated with the occurrence of many systemic diseases and tumors. Oral cavity tumors are common tobacco-related cancers, and of all the anatomical structures that are exposed to the effects of smoking, the oral cavity remains the least-explored area. Changes that occur in the biology of oral epithelial keratinocytes under the influence of the components of tobacco smoke often go unnoticed, if they are asymptomatic. The proper functioning of the oral epithelium is determined by the proliferation and differentiation of the cells in keratinization — the process of programmed cell death, which extends through to the mechanisms of apoptosis. Due to incomplete knowledge of the impact of tobacco smoke on the biology of keratinocytes, an evaluation of the cell cycle was conducted and the apoptosis of oral epithelial keratinocytes was analyzed. The study involved 77 patients divided into four groups according to their intensity of smoking, ranging from 0 to 27 pack-years. There were no differences in the cell count between nonsmokers and smokers in the proper cell-cycle phases. The percentage of proliferating cells in the oral epithelium is about 11%. A reduction in the number of early-apoptotic cells (caspase positive/propidium iodide negative) and an increase in the number of late-apoptotic cells (caspase positive/annexin V positive/propidium iodide positive) were observed to occur with increasing pack-years. The present study demonstrates that smoking does not affect the oral keratinocyte cell cycle, but does modify the number of cells with early and late apoptotic features. An intensification of the impact of tobacco smoke components on the biology of the oral keratinocytes is clearly noticeable at approximately 6 pack-years. This indicates that the biology of the first organ exposed to tobacco smoke — the oral epithelium — is altered by tobacco smoking. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2014, Vol. 52, No. 1, 60–68)

Get Citation

Keywords

tobacco smoking; human oral keratinocytes; apoptosis; cell cycle; flow cytometry

About this article
Title

Tobacco smoking alters the number of oral epithelial cells with apoptotic features

Journal

Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica

Issue

Vol 52, No 1 (2014)

Article type

Original paper

Pages

60-68

Published online

2014-05-07

DOI

10.5603/FHC.2014.0007

Bibliographic record

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2014;52(1):60-68.

Keywords

tobacco smoking
human oral keratinocytes
apoptosis
cell cycle
flow cytometry

Authors

Adam Michcik
Miroslawa Cichorek
Agnieszka Daca
Piotr Chomik
Slawomir Wojcik
Anton Zawrocki
Adam Wlodarkiewicz

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl