open access

Vol 56, No 4 (2018)
Original paper
Submitted: 2018-01-26
Accepted: 2018-11-07
Published online: 2018-12-13
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Biomarkers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in localized, surgically treated clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

Anna Gasinska1, Janusz Jaszczynski2, Agnieszka Adamczyk1, Anna Janecka-Widła1, Waclaw Wilk1, Anna Cichocka1, Andrzej Stelmach2
DOI: 10.5603/FHC.a2018.0023
·
Pubmed: 30569446
·
Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2018;56(4):195-206.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Tumor Pathology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute, Oncology Center, Cracow Branch, Poland
  2. Department of Surgery, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute, Oncology Center, Cracow Branch, Poland, Garncarska 11, 31 115 Cracow, Poland

open access

Vol 56, No 4 (2018)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Submitted: 2018-01-26
Accepted: 2018-11-07
Published online: 2018-12-13

Abstract

Introduction. It has been suggested that the metastatic potential of neoplastic cells can be predicted on the basis of their biological features, including expression of proteins involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Therefore, the purpose of this work was to (1) evaluate the expression of EMT markers: ZEB2, vimentin, N-cadherin, TWIST, PTEN, survivin, E-cadherin, Ki-67 and GLUT-1, (2) assess mutation status of two genes: PIK3CA and KRAS, and (3) investigate the potential relationships between the studied biomarkers and clinicopathological factors in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).
Material and methods. Tumor tissue samples (embedded in paraffin blocks) from 159 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy were analyzed. Proteins expression was evaluated immunohistochemically. DNA mutations were analyzed on DNA isolated from tumor tissue and amplified by real-time PCR detection using suitable fluorescent labeled TaqMan assays.
Results. One hundred and seven men and 52 women of mean age of 63.1years were enrolled. Fifty four cancers at pTNM stage I–II and 98 at pTNM III–IV stage were diagnosed. There were 30 Fuhrman grade G1, 61 Fuhrman G2, 49 Fuhrman G3 and 19 Fuhrman G4 tumors. A negative correlation between ZEB2 (p = 0.047, r = –0.172) or E-cadherin expression (p = 0.027, r = –0.191) and TNM was observed. Positive association between grade and Ki-67 (p < 0.001), survivin (p < 0.001), vimentin (p < 0.001) immunoreactivity and negative association between TWIST expression (p = 0.029) or PTEN expression (p = 0.013) were found. Ki-67 expression was positively correlated with survivin (p < 0.001, r = 0.617), vimentin (p = 0.001, r = 0.251) and N-cadherin (p = 0,009, r = 0.207) immunoreactivity which can suggest tumor aggressiveness. TWIST was negatively correlated with E-cadherin (p < 0.001, r = –0.284), vimentin (p < 0.001, r = –0.297) and N-cadherin (p < 0.002, r = –0.241). ZEB2 was not associated with ccRCC grade but was negatively correlated with E-cadherin (p = 0.055, r= –0.153) and PTEN (p = 0.006). GLUT-1 expression was inversely linked to E-cadherin expression (p = 0.022, r= –0.182). Mutations in PIK3CA and KRAS genes were not found in any of the studied ccRCC tumors.
Conclusions. Low-grade tumors showed higher expression of ZEB2 and TWIST proteins than high-grade tumors, which can suggest that EMT in ccRCC begins at early stages of tumor development and, therefore, evaluation of these proteins, together with other biomarkers, may be useful for assessment of the tumor metastatic potential.

Abstract

Introduction. It has been suggested that the metastatic potential of neoplastic cells can be predicted on the basis of their biological features, including expression of proteins involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Therefore, the purpose of this work was to (1) evaluate the expression of EMT markers: ZEB2, vimentin, N-cadherin, TWIST, PTEN, survivin, E-cadherin, Ki-67 and GLUT-1, (2) assess mutation status of two genes: PIK3CA and KRAS, and (3) investigate the potential relationships between the studied biomarkers and clinicopathological factors in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).
Material and methods. Tumor tissue samples (embedded in paraffin blocks) from 159 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy were analyzed. Proteins expression was evaluated immunohistochemically. DNA mutations were analyzed on DNA isolated from tumor tissue and amplified by real-time PCR detection using suitable fluorescent labeled TaqMan assays.
Results. One hundred and seven men and 52 women of mean age of 63.1years were enrolled. Fifty four cancers at pTNM stage I–II and 98 at pTNM III–IV stage were diagnosed. There were 30 Fuhrman grade G1, 61 Fuhrman G2, 49 Fuhrman G3 and 19 Fuhrman G4 tumors. A negative correlation between ZEB2 (p = 0.047, r = –0.172) or E-cadherin expression (p = 0.027, r = –0.191) and TNM was observed. Positive association between grade and Ki-67 (p < 0.001), survivin (p < 0.001), vimentin (p < 0.001) immunoreactivity and negative association between TWIST expression (p = 0.029) or PTEN expression (p = 0.013) were found. Ki-67 expression was positively correlated with survivin (p < 0.001, r = 0.617), vimentin (p = 0.001, r = 0.251) and N-cadherin (p = 0,009, r = 0.207) immunoreactivity which can suggest tumor aggressiveness. TWIST was negatively correlated with E-cadherin (p < 0.001, r = –0.284), vimentin (p < 0.001, r = –0.297) and N-cadherin (p < 0.002, r = –0.241). ZEB2 was not associated with ccRCC grade but was negatively correlated with E-cadherin (p = 0.055, r= –0.153) and PTEN (p = 0.006). GLUT-1 expression was inversely linked to E-cadherin expression (p = 0.022, r= –0.182). Mutations in PIK3CA and KRAS genes were not found in any of the studied ccRCC tumors.
Conclusions. Low-grade tumors showed higher expression of ZEB2 and TWIST proteins than high-grade tumors, which can suggest that EMT in ccRCC begins at early stages of tumor development and, therefore, evaluation of these proteins, together with other biomarkers, may be useful for assessment of the tumor metastatic potential.

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Keywords

ccRCC, EMT; surviving; vimentin; Ki-67; GLUT-1; TWIST; PTEN; ZEB2; PIK3CA; KRAS; IHC

About this article
Title

Biomarkers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in localized, surgically treated clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

Journal

Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica

Issue

Vol 56, No 4 (2018)

Article type

Original paper

Pages

195-206

Published online

2018-12-13

DOI

10.5603/FHC.a2018.0023

Pubmed

30569446

Bibliographic record

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2018;56(4):195-206.

Keywords

ccRCC
EMT
surviving
vimentin
Ki-67
GLUT-1
TWIST
PTEN
ZEB2
PIK3CA
KRAS
IHC

Authors

Anna Gasinska
Janusz Jaszczynski
Agnieszka Adamczyk
Anna Janecka-Widła
Waclaw Wilk
Anna Cichocka
Andrzej Stelmach

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