open access

Vol 70, No 4 (2019)
Original papers
Published online: 2019-03-07
Submitted: 2019-02-14
Accepted: 2019-02-24
Get Citation

Cardiometabolic risk factors in young women with macroprolactinaemia

Robert Krysiak, Bogdan Marek, Bogusław Okopień
DOI: 10.5603/EP.a2019.0013
·
Pubmed: 30845340
·
Endokrynologia Polska 2019;70(4):336-341.

open access

Vol 70, No 4 (2019)
Original papers
Published online: 2019-03-07
Submitted: 2019-02-14
Accepted: 2019-02-24

Abstract

Introduction: The predominance of high-molecular-weight forms of prolactin in plasma is referred to as macroprolactinaemia. Unlike monomeric hyperprolactinaemia, no previous study has investigated cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with elevated macroprolactin content.

Material and methods: We studied two age-, weight-, and blood pressure-matched groups of premenopausal women: 11 women with macroprolactinaemia and 11 women with prolactin levels within the reference range. The outcomes of interest included: glucose homeostasis markers, plasma lipids, as well as plasma levels of uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, homocysteine, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

Results: Circulating levels of hsCRP and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose, as well as the homeostatic model assessment 1 of insulin resistance ratio, were higher, while levels of HDL cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were lower in women with macroprolactinaemia than in women without elevated levels of prolactin. In women with elevated levels of big-big prolactin, values of hsCRP and 25-hydroxyvitamin D correlated with the degree of insulin resistance and, similarly to HDL cholesterol and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose, with macroprolactin content. There were no differences between the study groups in concentrations of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, fibrinogen, and homocysteine.

Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that young women with macroprolactinaemia seem to be characterised by slightly increased cardiometabolic risk.

Abstract

Introduction: The predominance of high-molecular-weight forms of prolactin in plasma is referred to as macroprolactinaemia. Unlike monomeric hyperprolactinaemia, no previous study has investigated cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with elevated macroprolactin content.

Material and methods: We studied two age-, weight-, and blood pressure-matched groups of premenopausal women: 11 women with macroprolactinaemia and 11 women with prolactin levels within the reference range. The outcomes of interest included: glucose homeostasis markers, plasma lipids, as well as plasma levels of uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, homocysteine, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

Results: Circulating levels of hsCRP and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose, as well as the homeostatic model assessment 1 of insulin resistance ratio, were higher, while levels of HDL cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were lower in women with macroprolactinaemia than in women without elevated levels of prolactin. In women with elevated levels of big-big prolactin, values of hsCRP and 25-hydroxyvitamin D correlated with the degree of insulin resistance and, similarly to HDL cholesterol and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose, with macroprolactin content. There were no differences between the study groups in concentrations of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, fibrinogen, and homocysteine.

Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that young women with macroprolactinaemia seem to be characterised by slightly increased cardiometabolic risk.

Get Citation

Keywords

cardiovascular risk; macroprolactin; monomeric prolactin; risk factors

About this article
Title

Cardiometabolic risk factors in young women with macroprolactinaemia

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Vol 70, No 4 (2019)

Pages

336-341

Published online

2019-03-07

DOI

10.5603/EP.a2019.0013

Pubmed

30845340

Bibliographic record

Endokrynologia Polska 2019;70(4):336-341.

Keywords

cardiovascular risk
macroprolactin
monomeric prolactin
risk factors

Authors

Robert Krysiak
Bogdan Marek
Bogusław Okopień

References (35)
  1. Kasum M, Orešković S, Čehić E, et al. Laboratory and clinical significance of macroprolactinemia in women with hyperprolactinemia. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2017; 56(6): 719–724.
  2. Fahie-Wilson M, Smith TP. Determination of prolactin: the macroprolactin problem. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 27(5): 725–742.
  3. Shimatsu A, Hattori N. Macroprolactinemia: diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenic significance. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012; 2012: 167132.
  4. Fahie-Wilson MN, John R, Ellis AR. Macroprolactin; high molecular mass forms of circulating prolactin. Ann Clin Biochem. 2005; 42(Pt 3): 175–192.
  5. Vallette-Kasic S, Morange-Ramos I, Selim A, et al. Macroprolactinemia revisited: a study on 106 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87(2): 581–588.
  6. dos Santos Silva CM, Barbosa FRP, Lima GAB, et al. BMI and metabolic profile in patients with prolactinoma before and after treatment with dopamine agonists. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011; 19(4): 800–805.
  7. Yavuz D, Deyneli O, Akpinar I, et al. Endothelial function, insulin sensitivity and inflammatory markers in hyperprolactinemic pre-menopausal women. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003; 149(3): 187–193.
  8. Berinder K, Nyström T, Höybye C, et al. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in prolactinoma patients before and after normalization of prolactin by dopamine agonist therapy. Pituitary. 2011; 14(3): 199–207.
  9. Serri O, Li L, Mamputu JC, et al. The influences of hyperprolactinemia and obesity on cardiovascular risk markers: effects of cabergoline therapy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006; 64(4): 366–370.
  10. Jiang XB, He DS, Mao ZG, et al. BMI, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio, and insulin resistance in patients with prolactinomas: a pilot study in a Chinese cohort. Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(2): 1171–1176.
  11. Jiang XB, Li CL, He DS, et al. Increased carotid intima media thickness is associated with prolactin levels in subjects with untreated prolactinoma: a pilot study. Pituitary. 2014; 17(3): 232–239.
  12. Greenman Y, Tordjman K, Stern N. Increased body weight associated with prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas: weight loss with normalization of prolactin levels. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1998; 48(5): 547–553.
  13. Schmid C, Goede DL, Hauser RS, et al. Increased prevalence of high Body Mass Index in patients presenting with pituitary tumours: severe obesity in patients with macroprolactinoma. Swiss Med Wkly. 2006; 136(15-16): 254–258.
  14. Krysiak R, Okopien B. Different effects of cabergoline and bromocriptine on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with elevated prolactin levels. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015; 116(3): 251–256.
  15. Krysiak R, Szkróbka W, Okopień B. Different effects of atorvastatin on cardiometabolic risk factors in young women with and without hyperprolactinemia. J Clin Pharmacol. 2019; 59(1): 83–89.
  16. Krysiak R, Szkróbka W, Okopień B. Different effects of fenofibrate on cardiometabolic risk factors in young women with and without hyperprolactinemia. Pharmacol Rep. 2019; 71(1): 61–66.
  17. Gibney J, Smith TP, McKenna TJ. Clinical relevance of macroprolactin. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005; 62(6): 633–643.
  18. Krysiak R, Drosdzol-Cop A, Skrzypulec-Plinta V, et al. Sexual function and depressive symptoms in young women with elevated macroprolactin content: a pilot study. Endocrine. 2016; 53(1): 291–298.
  19. Gulcelik NE, Usman A. Macroprolactinaemia in diabetic patients. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010; 31(2): 270–274.
  20. Dyaczyński M, Scanes CG, Koziec H, et al. Endocrine implications of obesity and bariatric surgery. Endokrynol Pol. 2018; 69(5): 574–597.
  21. Gilowski W, Krysiak R, Marek B, et al. The effect of short-term perindopril and telmisartan treatment on circulating levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in hypertensive patients. Endokrynol Pol. 2018; 69(6): 667–674.
  22. Kinlay S, Egido J. Inflammatory biomarkers in stable atherosclerosis. Am J Cardiol. 2006; 98(11A): 2P–8P.
  23. Feig DI, Kang DH, Johnson RJ. Uric acid and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359(17): 1811–1821.
  24. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Herman Z. Effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on coagulation and fibrinolysis processes. Drugs. 2003; 63(17): 1821–1854.
  25. McCully KS. Homocysteine, vitamins, and vascular disease prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 86(5): 1563S–8S.
  26. Wang Lu, Song Y, Manson JE, et al. Circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2012; 5(6): 819–829.
  27. Mounier C, Trouillas J, Claustrat B, et al. Macroprolactinaemia associated with prolactin adenoma. Hum Reprod. 2003; 18(4): 853–857.
  28. Tamer G, Telci A, Mert M, et al. Prevalence of pituitary adenomas in macroprolactinemic patients may be higher than it is presumed. Endocrine. 2012; 41(1): 138–143.
  29. Krysiak R, Kowalska B, Szkróbka W, et al. The association between macroprolactin levels and vitamin D status in premenopausal women with macroprolactinemia: a pilot study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2015; 123(8): 446–450.
  30. Olukoga AO. Macroprolactinemia is clinically important. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87(10): 4833–4; author reply 4834.
  31. Krysiak R, Kowalska B, Szkróbka W, et al. A neutral effect of testosterone therapy on macroprolactin content in men with macroprolactinemia and late-onset hypogonadism. Pharmacol Rep. 2016; 68(1): 139–143.
  32. Krysiak R, Szkróbka W, Okopień B. A Neutral Effect of Metformin Treatment on Macroprolactin Content in Women with Macroprolactinemia. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2017; 125(4): 223–228.
  33. Zheng W, Yang XH, Cai DB, et al. Adjunctive metformin for antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Psychopharmacol. 2017; 31(5): 625–631.
  34. Krysiak R, Okrzesik J, Okopien B. The effect of short-term metformin treatment on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study. Endocrine. 2015; 49(1): 242–249.
  35. Krysiak R, Kowalska B, Szkróbka W, et al. The effect of oral contraception on macroprolactin levels in women with macroprolactinemia: A pilot study. Pharmacol Rep. 2015; 67(5): 854–857.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

Via MedicaWydawcą serwisu jest  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl