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Impact of the initial clinical presentation on the outcome of patients with infective endocarditis

Andreea Motoc, Jolien Kessels, Bram Roosens, Patrick Lacor, Nico Van de Veire, Johan De Sutter, Julien Magne, Steven Droogmans, Bernard Cosyns
DOI: 10.5603/CJ.a2021.0075
·
Pubmed: 34240402

open access

Ahead of print
Original articles
Published online: 2021-07-07

Abstract

Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease. Despite advancements in diagnostic methods, the initial clinical presentation of IE remains a valuable asset. Therefore, the impact of clinical presentation on outcomes and its association with microorganisms and IE localization were assessed herein.

Methods: This retrospective study included 183 patients (age 68.9 ± 14.2 years old, 68.9% men) with definite IE at two tertiary care hospitals in Belgium. Demographic data, medical history, clinical presentation, blood cultures, imaging data and outcomes were recorded.

Results: In-hospital mortality rate was 22.4%. Sixty (32.8%) of the patients developed embolism, 42 (23%) shock, and 103 (56.3%) underwent surgery during hospitalization. Shock at admission predicted embolism during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 2.631, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.119–6.184, p = 0.027). A new cardiac murmur at admission predicted cardiac surgery (OR 1.949, 95% CI 1.007–3.774, p = 0.048). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus predicted in-hospital mortality and shock (p = 0.005, OR 6.945, 95% CI 1.774–27.192 and p = 0.015, OR 4.691, 95% CI 1.348–16.322, respectively). Mitral valve and aortic valve IE respectively predicted in-hospital death (p = 0.039, OR 2.258, 95% CI 1.043–4.888) and embolism (p = 0.017, OR 2.328, 95% CI 1.163–4.659). 

Conclusions: In this retrospective study, shock at admission independently predicted embolism during hospitalization in IE patients. Moreover, a new cardiac murmur at admission predicted the need for cardiac surgery. This emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive initial clinical evaluation in combination with imaging and microbiological data, in order to identify high-risk IE patients early.

Abstract

Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease. Despite advancements in diagnostic methods, the initial clinical presentation of IE remains a valuable asset. Therefore, the impact of clinical presentation on outcomes and its association with microorganisms and IE localization were assessed herein.

Methods: This retrospective study included 183 patients (age 68.9 ± 14.2 years old, 68.9% men) with definite IE at two tertiary care hospitals in Belgium. Demographic data, medical history, clinical presentation, blood cultures, imaging data and outcomes were recorded.

Results: In-hospital mortality rate was 22.4%. Sixty (32.8%) of the patients developed embolism, 42 (23%) shock, and 103 (56.3%) underwent surgery during hospitalization. Shock at admission predicted embolism during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 2.631, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.119–6.184, p = 0.027). A new cardiac murmur at admission predicted cardiac surgery (OR 1.949, 95% CI 1.007–3.774, p = 0.048). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus predicted in-hospital mortality and shock (p = 0.005, OR 6.945, 95% CI 1.774–27.192 and p = 0.015, OR 4.691, 95% CI 1.348–16.322, respectively). Mitral valve and aortic valve IE respectively predicted in-hospital death (p = 0.039, OR 2.258, 95% CI 1.043–4.888) and embolism (p = 0.017, OR 2.328, 95% CI 1.163–4.659). 

Conclusions: In this retrospective study, shock at admission independently predicted embolism during hospitalization in IE patients. Moreover, a new cardiac murmur at admission predicted the need for cardiac surgery. This emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive initial clinical evaluation in combination with imaging and microbiological data, in order to identify high-risk IE patients early.

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Keywords

infective endocarditis, clinical presentation, cardiac surgery, in-hospital mortality

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Title

Impact of the initial clinical presentation on the outcome of patients with infective endocarditis

Journal

Cardiology Journal

Issue

Ahead of print

Article type

Original Article

Published online

2021-07-07

DOI

10.5603/CJ.a2021.0075

Pubmed

34240402

Keywords

infective endocarditis
clinical presentation
cardiac surgery
in-hospital mortality

Authors

Andreea Motoc
Jolien Kessels
Bram Roosens
Patrick Lacor
Nico Van de Veire
Johan De Sutter
Julien Magne
Steven Droogmans
Bernard Cosyns

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