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Published online: 2023-06-20

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The role of stress hyperglycemia and hyperlactatemia in non-diabetic patients with myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention

Michał Terlecki1, Maryla Kocowska-Trytko1, Christopher Pavlinec1, Aleksandra Ostrowska1, Paweł Lis1, Adam Bednarski1, Wiktoria Wojciechowska1, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek1, Marek Rajzer1

Abstract

Background: Stress hyperglycemia and lactates have been used separately as markers of a severe clinical condition and poor outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). However, the interplay between glucose and lactate metabolism in patients with MI have not been sufficiently studied. The aim in the present study was to examine the relationship of glycemia on admission (AG) and lactate levels and their impact on the outcome in non-diabetic MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). 

Methods: A total of 405 consecutive, non-diabetic, MI patients were enrolled in this retrospective, observational, single-center study. Clinical characteristic including glucose and lactate levels on admission and at 30-day mortality were assessed.

Results: Patients with stress hyperglycemia (AG ≥ 7.8 mmol/L, n = 103) had higher GRACE score (median [interquartile range]: 143.4 (115.4–178.9) vs. 129.4 (105.7–154.5), p = 0.002) than normoglycemic patients (AG level < 7.8 mmol/L, n = 302). A positive correlation of AG with lactate level (R = 0.520, p < 0.001) was observed. The coexistence of both hyperglycemia and hyperlactatemia (lactate level ≥ 2.0 mmol/L) was associated with lower survival rate in the Kaplan-Meier estimates (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis both hyperglycemia and hyperlactatemia were related to a higher risk of death at 30-day follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 3.21, 95%, confidence interval [CI] 1.04–9.93; p = 0.043 and HR 7.08; 95% CI 1.44-34.93; p = 0.016, respectively)

Conclusions: There is a relationship between hyperglycemia and hyperlactatemia in non-diabetic MI patients treated with PCI. The coexistence of both hyperglycemia and hyperlactatemia is associated with lower survival rate and are independent predictors of 30-day mortality in MI patients and these markers should be evaluated simultaneously.

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