Vol 30, No 2 (2023)
Image in Cardiovascular Medicine
Published online: 2023-04-17

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Surgical valve replacement in a case of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy with massive left atrial dilatation and secondary mitral regurgitation

Stephane Noble1, Sarah Mauler-Wittwer1, Philippe Meyer2, Georgios Giannakopoulos1
Pubmed: 37083172
Cardiol J 2023;30(2):333-334.


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Cardiology Journal

2023, Vol. 30, No. 2, 333–334

DOI: 10.5603/CJ.2023.0023

Copyright © 2023 Via Medica

ISSN 1897–5593

eISSN 1898–018X

Surgical valve replacement in a case of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy with massive left atrial dilatation and secondary mitral regurgitation

Stephane Noble1Sarah Mauler-Wittwer1Philippe Meyer2Georgios Giannakopoulos1
1Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division, Structural Heart Unit, University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland
2Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division, Heart Failure Unit, University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland

Address for correspondence: Stephane Noble, MD, Structural Heart Unit, Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland, tel: (+41) 795533149,

Received: 10.12.2022 Accepted: 22.02.2023

This article is available in open access under Creative Common Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license, allowing to download articles and share them with others as long as they credit the authors and the publisher, but without permission to change them in any way or use them commercially.

A 56-year-old patient, known for having idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy for more than 30 years with chronic atrial fibrillation under vitamin-K antagonist, was admitted for recurrent heart failure episodes despite optimal medical therapy (carvedilol 50-0-50 mg, digoxin 0.25-0-0 mg, torasemid 40-0-0 mg, dapaglifozine 10-0-0 mg, aldactone 25-0-0 mg, sacubitril/valsartan 100-0-100 mg). Cardiac resynchronization therapy was implanted 15 years ago.

Transthoracic echocardiography showed massive left atrial (LA) dilation with LA volume of 1134 mL and index LA volume > 10 times the cut-off value for severe LA dilation (493.9 mL/m2, severe > 48 mL/m2; Fig. 1A). The left ventricle (LV) was also severely dilated (end-systolic diameter: 68 mm, end-diastolic diameter: 94 mm). LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was estimated at 4550%. Mitral regurgitation (MR) was severe (PISA radius 2.4 cm, regurgitant volume 255 mL, effective regurgitant orifice area 23 mm2; Fig. 1B). Transoesophageal echocardiography showed leakage on the whole coaptation line, a 5 mm-coaptation gap, massive annular dilation (7 cm), posterior leaflet length of 13 mm (Fig. 1CE, Suppl. Video 1). MR mechanism were (posterior > anterior) leaflet restriction (Carpentier-3b) and annular dilation (Carpentier-1), corresponding to a functional and atrial MR. VO2max was 13 mL/min/kg and pulmonary pressures were normal. The heart team’s decision was to perform levosimendan perfusion, pre-LV assist device assessment and surgical mitral valve replacement (SMVR). A Medtronic 33 mm Mosaic bioprosthesis implantation with LA appendage ligation (50 mm, Atriclip) were performed uneventfully. Post-operative LVEF was 30% and mean gradient 6.5 mmHg (Fig. 1F, G, Suppl. Video 2).

Figure 1. A. Transthoracic apical four chamber view showing massive left atrium (LA) dilatation with LA volume of 1134 mL; B. Transthoracic apical four chamber view with color Doppler on the mitral valve and the LA showing severe mitral regurgitation; C. Transesophageal three-dimensional image of the mitral valve (atrial view) at mid-systole showing a coaptation gap between the two leaflets (arrowheads); D. Similar to panel C but ventricular view (arrowheads); E. Transesophageal four chamber view (0°), zoomed on the mitral valve, at mid-systole, showing the coaptation gap with leaflet restriction (posterior >> anterior); F, G. Transthoracic apical four chamber view showing the mitral bioprosthesis without (F) and with color Doppler without residual mitral regurgitation (G); LV left ventricle; LA left atrium; AL anterior leaflet; PL posterior leaflet.

Despite the absence of robust data in favor of SMVR in functional MR (class IIb), SMVR improved patient symptoms. At 1-year follow-up, there was no readmission. Transcatheter edge-to- -edge repair was not an appropriate option considering the leaflet flattening and the annular dilation.

Conflict of interest: None declared