open access

Vol 27, No 2 (2020)
Review articles — COVID-19
Published online: 2020-04-14
Get Citation

COVID-19 challenge for modern medicine

Tomasz Dzieciatkowski, Lukasz Szarpak, Krzysztof J. Filipiak, Milosz Jaguszewski, Jerzy R. Ladny, Jacek Smereka
DOI: 10.5603/CJ.a2020.0055
·
Pubmed: 32286679
·
Cardiol J 2020;27(2):175-183.

open access

Vol 27, No 2 (2020)
Review articles — COVID-19
Published online: 2020-04-14

Abstract

Coronaviruses cause disease in animals and people around the world. Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are mainly known to cause infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract but the symptoms may also involve the nervous and digestive systems. Since the beginning of December 2019, there has been an epidemic of SARS-CoV-2, which was originally referred to as 2019-nCoV. The most common symptoms are fever and cough, fatigue, sputum production, dyspnea, myalgia, arthralgia or sore throat, headache, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea (30%). The best prevention is to avoid exposure. In addition, contact per­sons should be subjected to mandatory quarantine. COVID-19 patients should be treated in specialist centers. A significant number of patients with pneumonia require passive oxygen therapy. Non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen therapy can be applied in mild and moderate non-hypercapnia cases. A lung-saving ventilation strategy must be implemented in acute respiratory distress syndrome and mechanically ventilated patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a highly specialized method, available only in selected centers and not applicable to a significant number of cases. Specific pharmacological treatment for COVID-19 is not currently available. Modern medicine is gearing up to fight the new coronavirus pandemic. The key is a holistic approach to the patient including, primar­ily, the use of personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of further virus transmission, as well as patient management, which consists in both quarantine and, in the absence of specific pharmacological therapy, symptomatic treatment.

Abstract

Coronaviruses cause disease in animals and people around the world. Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are mainly known to cause infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract but the symptoms may also involve the nervous and digestive systems. Since the beginning of December 2019, there has been an epidemic of SARS-CoV-2, which was originally referred to as 2019-nCoV. The most common symptoms are fever and cough, fatigue, sputum production, dyspnea, myalgia, arthralgia or sore throat, headache, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea (30%). The best prevention is to avoid exposure. In addition, contact per­sons should be subjected to mandatory quarantine. COVID-19 patients should be treated in specialist centers. A significant number of patients with pneumonia require passive oxygen therapy. Non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen therapy can be applied in mild and moderate non-hypercapnia cases. A lung-saving ventilation strategy must be implemented in acute respiratory distress syndrome and mechanically ventilated patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a highly specialized method, available only in selected centers and not applicable to a significant number of cases. Specific pharmacological treatment for COVID-19 is not currently available. Modern medicine is gearing up to fight the new coronavirus pandemic. The key is a holistic approach to the patient including, primar­ily, the use of personal protective equipment to reduce the risk of further virus transmission, as well as patient management, which consists in both quarantine and, in the absence of specific pharmacological therapy, symptomatic treatment.

Get Citation

Keywords

coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, pandemic, symptoms, epidemiology, healthcare, treatment, medical stuff

About this article
Title

COVID-19 challenge for modern medicine

Journal

Cardiology Journal

Issue

Vol 27, No 2 (2020)

Pages

175-183

Published online

2020-04-14

DOI

10.5603/CJ.a2020.0055

Pubmed

32286679

Bibliographic record

Cardiol J 2020;27(2):175-183.

Keywords

coronavirus
COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2
pandemic
symptoms
epidemiology
healthcare
treatment
medical stuff

Authors

Tomasz Dzieciatkowski
Lukasz Szarpak
Krzysztof J. Filipiak
Milosz Jaguszewski
Jerzy R. Ladny
Jacek Smereka

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