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Exercise based assessment of cardiac autonomic function in type 1 versus type 2 diabetes mellitus

Jeffrey J. Goldberger, Daniel J. Pelchovitz, Jason Ng, Haris Subacius, Alexandru B. Chicos, Smriti Banthia, Mark Molitch, Ronald B. Goldberg
DOI: 10.5603/CJ.a2020.0064
·
Pubmed: 32378730

open access

Ahead of print
Original articles
Published online: 2020-05-07

Abstract

Background: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that is associated with increased mortality. Exercise-based assessment of autonomic function has identified diminished parasympathetic reactivation after exercise in type 2 DM. It is postulated herein, that this would be more prominent among those with type 1 DM.

Methods: Sixteen subjects with type 1 DM (age 32.9 ± 10.1 years), 18 subjects with type 2 DM (55.4 ± 8.0 years) and 30 controls (44.0 ± 11.6 years) underwent exercise-based assessment of autonomic function. Two 16-min submaximal bicycle tests were performed followed by 45 min of recovery. On the 2nd test, atropine (0.04 mg/kg) was administered near end-exercise so that all of the recovery occurred under parasympathetic blockade. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were measured at rest, during exercise, and during recovery.

Results: There were no differences in resting or end-exercise heart rates in the three groups. Parasympathetic effect on RR-intervals during recovery (p < 0.03) and heart rate recovery (p = 0.02) were blunted in type 2 DM. Type 1 DM had higher baseline epinephrine and norepinephrine levels (p < 0.03), and exhibited persistent sympathoexcitation during recovery.

Conclusions: Despite a longer duration of DM in the study patients with type 1 versus type 2 DM, diminished parasympathetic reactivation was not noted in type 1 DM. Instead, elevation in resting plasma catecholamines was noted compared to type 2 DM and controls. The variable pathophysiology for exercise-induced autonomic abnormalities in type 1 versus type 2 DM may impact prognosis.

Abstract

Background: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that is associated with increased mortality. Exercise-based assessment of autonomic function has identified diminished parasympathetic reactivation after exercise in type 2 DM. It is postulated herein, that this would be more prominent among those with type 1 DM.

Methods: Sixteen subjects with type 1 DM (age 32.9 ± 10.1 years), 18 subjects with type 2 DM (55.4 ± 8.0 years) and 30 controls (44.0 ± 11.6 years) underwent exercise-based assessment of autonomic function. Two 16-min submaximal bicycle tests were performed followed by 45 min of recovery. On the 2nd test, atropine (0.04 mg/kg) was administered near end-exercise so that all of the recovery occurred under parasympathetic blockade. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were measured at rest, during exercise, and during recovery.

Results: There were no differences in resting or end-exercise heart rates in the three groups. Parasympathetic effect on RR-intervals during recovery (p < 0.03) and heart rate recovery (p = 0.02) were blunted in type 2 DM. Type 1 DM had higher baseline epinephrine and norepinephrine levels (p < 0.03), and exhibited persistent sympathoexcitation during recovery.

Conclusions: Despite a longer duration of DM in the study patients with type 1 versus type 2 DM, diminished parasympathetic reactivation was not noted in type 1 DM. Instead, elevation in resting plasma catecholamines was noted compared to type 2 DM and controls. The variable pathophysiology for exercise-induced autonomic abnormalities in type 1 versus type 2 DM may impact prognosis.

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Keywords

cardiac autonomic neuropathy, diabetes mellitus, exercise testing, cardiac autonomic function

About this article
Title

Exercise based assessment of cardiac autonomic function in type 1 versus type 2 diabetes mellitus

Journal

Cardiology Journal

Issue

Ahead of print

Article type

Original Article

Published online

2020-05-07

DOI

10.5603/CJ.a2020.0064

Pubmed

32378730

Keywords

cardiac autonomic neuropathy
diabetes mellitus
exercise testing
cardiac autonomic function

Authors

Jeffrey J. Goldberger
Daniel J. Pelchovitz
Jason Ng
Haris Subacius
Alexandru B. Chicos
Smriti Banthia
Mark Molitch
Ronald B. Goldberg

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