Vol 28, No 5 (2021)
Original Article
Published online: 2020-01-09

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The effect of hidden female smoking on the relationship between smoking and cardiovascular disease

Sang Won Hwang1, Hae Jeong Lee2, Cheol Hong Kim2, Sung Hoon Kim2, Yechan Kyung2, Sang Taek Lee2, Ju Suk Lee2
Pubmed: 31960946
Cardiol J 2021;28(5):716-727.


Background: Smoking is a known risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but several Korean studies have shown differing results on the association of current smoking status and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between smoking status and CVD (myocardial infarction and stroke) using national representative populationbased samples. The aim was also to investigate the effects of hidden smokers on the association between CVD and smoking.
Methods: Data were acquired from 28,620 participants (12,875 men and 15,745 women), age 19 years or older, who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2016.
Results: The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that ex-smoking status was correlated with CVD when self-reported (odds ratio [OR]: 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20–2.19) and for survey-cotinine verified-smoking status (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.20–2.19). Interestingly, the present study showed current smoking was not significantly associated with CVD. For the effect of sex on smoking and CVD, self-reported and survey-cotinine-verified ex-smoking status were correlated with CVD in males (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.04–2.04 and OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.02–2.02) and in females (OR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.59–4.71 and OR: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.64–5.18). The ratios of cotinine-verified to self-reported smoking rates were 1.95 for women and 1.08 for men.
Conclusions: In the current study, while ex-smoking status was significantly associated with CVD, current smoking status was not. Female ex-smoking status had a higher adjusted odds ratio for CVD than males compared to non-smoking status. An effect of hidden female smoking was also found on the association between smoking status and CVD in Korean adults.

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