Vol 28, No 2 (2021)
Original Article
Published online: 2019-01-24

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Vitamin D deficiency and anemia is highly prevalent and dependent on the etiology of heart failure: A pilot study

Jolanta Małyszko1, Anna Tomaszuk-Kazberuk2, Konrad Dobrzycki3, Hanna Bachórzewska-Gajewska4, Marcin Zorawski5, Ewa Koc-Zorawska6, Grażyna Kobus7, Sławomir Dobrzycki8
Pubmed: 30697681
Cardiol J 2021;28(2):262-270.


Background: Anemia and vitamin D deficiency are common factors in chronic heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study was to assess vitamin D levels as well as its binding protein and anemia in relation to a cause of CHF: coronary heart disease, valvular disease and cardiomyopathy.

Methods: One hundred and sixteen consecutive patients (36 females and 80 males) with CHF were admitted for percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Hemoglobin concentration, serum creatinine, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and its binding protein-VDBP were measured.

Results: The prevalence of anemia was 22%. BNP was the highest in the group with coronary artery disease. Ejection fraction was the lowest in cardiomyopathy group. 25(OH)D was lowest in valvular disease group, significantly lower than in the coronary artery group. A similar pattern of change showed vitamin D binding protein. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (level below 20 ng/mL) in the whole group was 95%, in 49% of the patients 25(OH)D was below 10 ng/mL. In univariate analysis 25(OH)D correlated with hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and BNP in patients with CHF in the whole group. In multiple regression analysis, predictors of 25(OH)D were estimated, glomerular filtration rate, BNP and valvular disease.

Conclusions: 25(OH)D deficiency is common in CHF patients. Valvular disease is associated the most severe vitamin D deficiency and worsened kidney function. A higher prevalence of anemia in CHF due to coronary heart disease may be associated with wider use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and acetylsalicylic acid. Heart and kidney function are predictors of 25(OH)D level in the patients of this study.

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